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自考英语语法复习资料(12)

2007-05-23 10:49   【 】【我要纠错

  (7)-ing分词的构成

  1. -ing分词的构成

  -ing分词是由动词原形加词尾-ing构成。-ing分词同样有时态和语态的变化,通常有下表几种形式(以do为例):

  主动形式

  被动形式

  一般式

  doing

  being done

  完成式

  having done

  having been done

  -ing分词的否定形式是由not 加-ing分词构成。如:

  Not knowing his address,I could do nothing but stay at home and wait.

  不知道他的地址,我只好在家里等着。

  His not coming made all of us angry. 他没来使我们大家都很生气。

  2. -ing分词的一般式和完成式:

  -ing分词的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作同时进行的动作;完成式表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。如:

  Being a student,he was interested in books. 作为一个学生,他对书本很感兴趣。

  Not having studied his lessons very hard,he failed the examinations. 因为没有努力学习功课,他考试不及格。

  3. -ing分词的被动式:

  -ing分词的被动式表示它的逻辑主语是-ing分词动作的承受者。根据-ing分词动作发生的时间,-ing分词的被动式有一般被动式(being done)和完成被动式(having been done)。如:

  The question being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。

  He never talked about his having been interviewed by the reporter. 他从来没谈起过他被记者采访的事情。

  Having been criticized by the teacher,he gave up smoking. 被老师批评以后,他把烟戒了。

  注意:在need,want,require,be worth等动词(短语)后,作宾语的-ing分词常用主动形式来表示被动含义。如:

  Your shoes need cleaning. = Your shoes need to be cleaned. 你的鞋需要清洗一下了。

  This book is well worth reading. 这本书很值得一看。

  4. -ing分词的语法作用

  -ing分词一方面具有动词的性质,另一方面也相当于一个名词或形容词、副词,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补语等。

  1)–ing分词(短语)作主语:

  Laying eggs is the ant queen's full-time job. 产卵是蚁后的专职工作。

  Saying is easier than doing. 说比做容易。

  在下面两种结构中,-ing分词也作主语。

  ①为了保持句子平衡,通常用作形式主语,而把真实主语放在句末。如:

  It is no use crying over spilt milk. 作无益的后悔是没有用的。

  It's a waste of time arguing about it. 辩论这事是浪费时间。

  ②在There is no结构中,通常用-ing分词。如:

  There is no joking about such matters. 这种事开不得玩笑。

  There is no holding back the wheel of history. 历史车轮不可阻挡。

  2) -ing分词(短语)作表语:

  His hobby is collecting stamps. 他的爱好是收集邮票。

  The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令人困惑。

  3) -ing分词作宾语:

  ①–ing分词作动词宾语。如:I suggest doing it in a different way. 我建议用另一种方法做这件事。

  We enjoy attending Miss Li's class. 我们喜欢听李老师的课。

  ②-ing分词作宾语也可用在复合宾语中作真正的宾语,而用it作形式宾语。如:

  I don't think it possible living in such a cold place. 我认为住在这么寒冷的地方是不可能的。

  Do you consider it any good trying again? 你觉得再试一次会有好处吗?

  ③-ing分词作介词宾语,经常用在一些短语的后面。如:

  I'm against inviting him to dinner. 我反对邀请他来吃饭。

  They don't feel like walking that much. 他们不喜欢走那么多路。

  He went to London in the hope of being a famous painter. 他去了伦敦,希望能成为一个著名的画家。

  此类短语还有很多。如:look forward to(渴望,盼望),be proud of(以……自豪),be responsible for(对……负责),insist on(坚持),think of(考虑,想到),dream of(梦想),object to(反对,抗议),hear of(听说),prevent…from(防止,阻止),keep…from(防止,阻止),stop…from(防止,阻止),be engaged in(从事于),depend on(依靠,依赖),thank…for(因……而道谢),excuse…for(因……而道歉),aim at(目的在于),devote…to(献身于),set about(着手做),be/get used to(习惯于),be fond of(喜欢),be afraid of(害怕),be tired of(对……厌烦),succeed in(成功地做……),be interested in(对……感兴趣),be ashamed of(对……感到羞愧)等等。

  注意:在有些句子中,介词常可省去。如:

  I have no difficulty (in) communicating with foreigners. 我在和外国人交谈方面没有什么困难。

  He used to spend a lot of time (in) playing games. 过去他常花很多时间玩游戏。

  What can prevent us (from) getting married? 有什么能阻止我们结婚?

  另外,-ing分词可以和一些介词如in,on,after,against,before,by,for,without,besides等构成短语,在句中作状语。如:

  He left ahead of time without saying a word. 他一句话也没说就提前离开了。

  Besides cooking and sewing,she had to take care of four children.

  除了做饭和缝纫以外,她还要照顾四个孩子。

  On hearing the news,all the pupils jumped with joy. 听到这个消息后,所有的学生都高兴得跳了起来。

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