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自考英语语法复习资料(16)

2007-05-23 13:43   【 】【我要纠错

  (8)-ed分词

  1. 分词的定义

  动词的-ed分词即过去分词,是由动词的过去分词构成,一般只有一种形式。

  2. 过去分词的语法作用:

  过去分词一方面具有动词的性质,另一方面也相当于一个形容词或副词,在句中可以作表语、定语、状语和补足语。

  1)过去分词作表语,主要表示主语的心理感觉或所处的状态。如:

  Don't touch the glass because it is broken. 不要碰那个杯子,它是坏的。

  He is quite pleased with the design of the dress. 她很喜欢那礼服的式样。

  2)过去分词做定语:

  单个的过去分词作定语一般放在名词的前面,相当于一个定语从句。如:

  The excited people rushed into the building. 激动的人们奔进了大楼。

  We need more qualified teachers. 我们需要更多合格的教师。

  过去分词短语作定语通常放在被修饰的词后面,相当于一个定语从句。如:

  Is there anything planned for tomorrow? 明天有什么活动吗?

  The suggestion made by the foreign expert was adopted by the manager. 外国专家提出来的建议被经理采纳了。

  过去分词作定语也可用作非限制性定语,前后用逗号隔开。如:

  The books, written by Lu Xun, are popular with many Chinese people.这些书是鲁迅写的,受到了许多中国人民的喜爱。

  The meeting, attended by one thousand students, was a success. 这次会议获得很大的成功,共有一千个学生出席了。

  3)过去分词做状语:

  过去分词和-ing分词作状语一样,也可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。

  ①表时间,相当于一个时间状语从句,有时过去分词前可加连词when或while来强调时间概念。如:

  Seen from the top of the hill, the city looked like a big garden. 从山顶上看,这个城市就像一个大花园。

  Accepted by the Party, he decided to devote his life to the cause of the Party.

  入党以后,他决定献身于党的事业。

  ②表原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。如:

  Deeply moved by the story, the excited people stopped quarrelling with each other.

  激动的人们被那个故事深深地感动了,停止了争吵。

  Encouraged by the speech, the young people made up their minds to take up the struggle.

  受到了讲演的鼓舞,年轻人决定起来从事斗争。

  ③表条件,相当于一个条件状语从句,有时过去分词前可用if等词。如:

  Given another chance, he will do better.再给他一次机会,他会做得更好。

  Compared with your brother, you should make greater efforts to study English.

  和你哥哥相比,你应该更加努力学习英语。

  If heated, water can be turned into steam. 水如果被加热,会变成水蒸气。

  ④表让步,相当于一个though/although引导的让步状语从句。如:

  Exhausted by the running, they went on running after the robber.

  尽管已经跑得筋疲力尽,他们还是继续追赶着那个强盗。

  Laughed at by many people, he continued his study. 尽管被许多人嘲笑,他还是继续他的研究。

  ⑤表方式或伴随情况。如:

  The old man went into the room,supported by his wife.那个老人在他的妻子的搀扶下走进了房间。

  Seated at the table, my father and I were talking about my job. 我和父亲坐在桌子旁边讨论着我的工作问题。

  4)过去分词作补足语:

  过去分词可以在see, hear, notice, watch, find, get, have, feel, make, leave, keep等词后与一名词或代词构成复合宾语,用作宾语补语。如:

  When will you go to the hospital and have your tooth examined? 你什么时候去医院检查你的牙齿?

  When you are making a speech, you should speak louder to make yourself heard.

  当你在作报告时,你应该讲响一点使自己被人听清。

  当这类句子变成被动语态时,过去分词用作主语补语。如:

  One of the glasses was found broken. 有人发现其中一个杯子破了。

  They should be kept informed of the situation there. 应该让他们知道那儿的形势。

  1. 过去分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语一般必须和句子的主语相一致。如:

  When asked why he came here, the boy kept silent.当那个男孩被问到为何来这里时,他沉默不语。

  Born and brought up in the countryside, he was interested in biology.

  由于在农村出生并长大,他对生物很感兴趣。

  如果过去分词的逻辑主语和句子主语不一致,必须使用过去分词的独立主格结构。

  2. 动词have后所接的三种宾语补语:

  have somebody/something do something 不定式作补语必须省去to, 不定式动作由宾语发出,表示一次性的动作。如:

  I had the workers do the job for me. 我让工人们替我完成了工作。

  Jim often has his father help him with his homework. 吉姆经常让他的父亲帮助做家庭作业。

  have somebody /something doing something -ing分词作补语,分词动作也由宾语发出,强调动作的延续或正在进行。如:

  They had the tractor working all the time. 他们让拖拉机一直工作着。

  We won‘t have the child talking to his mother like that. 我们不能让那个孩子那样对他的妈妈说话。

  have somebody/something done 过去分词作补语,宾语和补足语之间有逻辑上的被动关系,通常有两种情况:

  ①主语让别人做某事,强调主语的意志。如:

  He had his hair cut yesterday. 他昨天理发了。

  Later on the center had a great many new trees planted.后来,这个中心让人种了很多树。

  ②主语遭到某种不幸或陷入恶劣的环境,说明宾语的一种无意识的被动行为。如:

  He had his leg broken in the match last month.他在上星期的比赛中摔断了腿。

  He had one eye lost in the war. 在战争中,他失去了一只眼睛。

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