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自考“英语(一)”笔记(47)

2007-04-09 08:42   【 】【我要纠错

  17. influence n. 影响,v. 影响

  1)The old man had a great influence on the family.(那位老人对家庭的影响很大。)

  2)His teachings exerted a strong influence on the young people.(他的教导给年轻人施以深刻的影响。)

  3)The government would use its influence to try to make the talk successful.(政府将以其影响努力使会谈成功。)

  4)I didn't want him to influence me in my choice.(我不想让他影响我的选择。)

  5)Do you think British art is influenced by American painting.(你认为英国的艺术受美国绘画的影响吗?)

  请注意区别influence 和affect 这两个词。

  influence常指间接地、以一种无形的力量去潜移默化地影响人的行为、性格或观点等。

  affect 表示对…产生(不良)影响,如:

  1)The economic crisis has seriously affected the export of that country.(经济危机严重影响那个国家的出口。)

  2)Too much smoking may affect your lungs.(吸烟过多会影响你的肺。)

  18. scatter v. 撒;驱散;消散;

  1)Clouds were scattered by the wind.(风起云散。)

  2)The books scattered on the desk.(书桌上撒满了书。)

  3)The noise scattered the dogs and chickens(响声使得鸡、狗四散。)

  4)The Police scattered the demonstrators with tears gas. (警察用催泪弹驱散示威者。)

  5)Don't scatter your strength. (不要分散精力。)

  19. invention n. 发明,创造;虚构;

  1)Telephone is the invention of Alexander Bell.(电话是亚历山大·贝尔发明的。)

  2)The whole thing was an invention of a New York newspaper.(整件事都是一家纽约报纸虚构的。)

  invent v. 发明、创造、虚构;

  1)When the teacher asked the pupil why he had not come to class, he invented an excuse.

  (老师问 那个学生为什么没来上课,他编造了一个借口。)

  2)Edison invented the electric bulb. (爱迪生发明了灯泡。)

  本课简介

  人们普遍认为在每一个词都有其正确的词意。词典和语法书是我们寻求词意和用法的至上权威,但是我们甚少去询问词典和语法的编著者以何为据。在本篇课文中,作者详细介绍了词典编写的过程,并且强调编写词典不是对词的意思,建立权威的解释,而是竭尽所能记录下每一个词对其过去的作者而言是何意思。世界在变化,语言也在变化,我们不得不赋予旧词以新的解释、新的用法,因些词典需要增补新的内容。

  本课主要语言点

  1. …dictionaries and grammars are the supreme authority in matters of meaning and usage.

  本句中in matters of 也可用in the matter of,意思是“在……方面”,“就……而论”,如:

  1)It was impossible for them to reach an agreement because they had too many divergences in matters of detail. (他们不可能达成协议,因为在细节问题上,他们有太多的分歧。)

  2)He is considered an expert in the matter of intellectual property.(他被看作是知识产权方面的专家。)

  3)He would suffer heavy losses in matters of money if he continued to believe those dishonest people.

  (如果他继续相信那些不诚实的人,他会遭受巨大的经济损失。)

  2. Few people ask by what authority the writers of dictionaries and grammars say what they say.

  句子中的few表示否定,意思是“很少的,几乎没有的”,如果用a few则表示肯定,意思是“有些,几个”。如:

  1)Very few people survived the explosion.(在爆炸中幸存的人很少。)

  2)Many of us tried but very few succeeded .(我们许多人都试了,但成功者甚少。)

  3)He will try it a few more times.(他会再试几次。)

  4)A few of my friends speak English.(我的朋友中有几个人能讲英语。)

  by在本句中的意思相当于according to (根据)。如:

  1)Never judge a person by his appearance.(千万别以貌取人。)

  2)He would be classified as rich by Chinese standards.(依照中国的标准,他会被归于富有一类。)

  authority这个词在词汇部分已做过讲解,我们在此再巩固一下。Authorities常指“当局,官方”,用作不可数名词时,常指“权力,管辖权”,用作可数名词时,常指“专家,权威”。如:

  1)The labor union continued to seek dialogue with the authorities.(工会继续寻求与当局对话的机会。)

  2)Police have the authority to arrest law-breakers.(警察有权逮捕犯法的人。)

  3)He had made efforts to exercise his authority over those young people(他已努力对那些年轻人行使管辖权。)

  4)A good dictionary is an authority on the meanings of words.(一本好的词典是词义方面的权威。)

  5)He is now an authority on American literature.(现在他成了美国文学方面的专家。)

  本句中what是一个关系代词,引导宾语从句,如:

  1)We always mean what we say.(我们向来说话算数。)

  2)Let him do what he wants to do.(让他去做他想做的事。)

  3)I don't know what they know.(他们知道的事我并不知道。)

  3.I once got into a dispute with an English woman over the pronunciation of a word and offered to look it up in the dictionary.

  once在本句中的意思是“一次,曾经”。在某些语言环境中,once也可以表示:一旦……(就……)。请看下面的例句,注意,once的不同意思:

  1)He once lived in Shanghai.(他曾经在上海住过。)

  2)Even if you only do it once, you will forever remember it.(即使你只做一次,你会永远记得。)

  3)It once belonged to my father.(这个曾经属于我父亲。)

  4)Once the sun had set, the air turned cold.(太阳一落,空气就变冷了。)

  5)Once you show any fear, he will attack you.(你一直露出恐惧,他就会攻击你。)

  6)Once published, the book will be very popular.(这本书一旦出版就会大受欢迎。)

  get into a dispute with sb. over sth.与某人就某问题进行争论,over 也可用about 替换。如:

  1)They had a dispute about where to go.(他们为了去哪里而争论。)

  2)The workers and the management got into a dispute over pay.(工人和厂方由于工资问题产生争端。)

  3)It was a dispute over economic policy.(这是一场关于经济政策的争论。)

  4. …anyone who is willing to quarrel with the dictionary is regarded as either eccentric or mad.

  who引导的是一个定语从句,修饰anyone.

  be willing to意思是:愿意做……,如:

  1)He is willing to help us.(他愿意帮助我们。)

  2)No one is willing to pay so much money for this old bike.(谁也不愿意付这么多钱买这辆旧自行车。)

  quarrel with sb.意思是“与某人争吵”。如:

  1)He quarreled with his brother yesterday.(他昨天跟他兄弟吵架了。)

  2)I don't want to quarrel with you about it.(我不想为此事跟你争吵。)

  regard as 意思是“把……看作为”,在其后可以跟名词(或名词短语,动名词短语);形容词等。如:

  1)He regarded the book as one of his masterpieces.(他把这本书看作是他的杰作之一。)

  2)He was regarded as an important figure in history.(他被看作为历史上的重要人物。)

  3)Nobody would regard this as important.(没人会认为这件事很重要。)

  4)Many people regard parents as being responsible for the control of their children.

  (许多人认为父母应负责管教子女。)

  either…or…。意思是为“不是……就是……”,“要么……要么……”。如:

  1)He is either drunk or mad.(他不是醉了就是疯了。)

  2)Tell them that they can either stay or leave immediately.(告诉他们,他们要么留下,要么现在就离开。)

  3)Either my brother or I am going to see my father off.(不是我兄弟就是我去为父亲送行。)

  5. The task of writing a dictionary begins with the reading of vast amounts of the literature of the period or subject that the dictionary is to cover.

  begin with 在本句中的意思是“以……开始;以……为起点”。如:

  1)I shall begin with this book today.(我打算今天先读这本书。)

  2)The drought began with that dry and hot summer.(干旱是从那个干热的夏季开始的。)

  3)The teacher began the class with a story.(老师以一个故事开始了讲课。)

  amount可以做可数名词用,也可以做不可数名词用,意思是“数量,数额”。amount的谓词动词的数与amount的数一致,而与所修饰的名词的数无关。如:

  1)A large amount of money was spent on this project.

  2)Large amounts of money were spent on this project.

  That引导的是一个定语从句,修饰the dictionary

  在be动词的后面加动词不定式,表示“安排、命令、职责、目的、用途、可能性等”。如:

  1)We are to meet at the station at 5:00 (我们约定5点钟在车站碰头。)

  2)You are to be back by 9:00.(你得在9点钟前回来。)

  3)The report is to be found in today's papers.(那个报道可在今天的报上找到。)

  Cover在本句中的意思是“涉及”。如:

  1)His researches covered a wide field .(他的研究涉及范围很广。)

  2)They covered many topics in their conversation.(他们谈话时讨论了许多问题。)

本文转载链接:自考“英语(一)”笔记(47)

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