1） The country was once subjected to foreign rule.（这个国家曾一度受外国统治。）
2） Taipei was subjected to serious earthquakes last year.（台北去年遭受了严重的地震灾害。）
3） We are all subject to the laws of nature.（我们都要受自然规律的支配。）
4） The child is very subject to coughs.（这孩子动不动就咳嗽。）
5） All men are subject to death.（人总有一死。）
while 在句子中做连词用，意思是“而，然而”。while也是一个多义词，请注意下面例句中while 的意思：
1） Strike while the iron is hot.（趁热打铁。）
2） He listened to the radio while he was doing his homework.（他一边听收音机，一边做作业。）
3） He is talkative while his twin brother is of few words.（他很健谈，而他的孪生兄弟则少言寡语。）
4） While the old man is respected， he is not well liked.（这个老人很受尊敬，但不太受喜欢。）
5） You will succeed sooner or later while you don't lose heart.（只要你不失去信心，你迟早会成功。）
1） They stood there waiting for the bus.
2） She had to work standing up.
13. Thus forming an integrated image with all the information placed in a single mental picture can help us to preserve a memory.
划线部分是该句的主要成分，forming an integrated image动名词短语做主语，can help做谓语，us to preserve a memory做复合宾语。
斜体部分是一个“with + 名词 + 过去分词”的独立结构，做方式状语，修饰动名词短语forming an integrated image.
1） Would you like Tom to go with you？（你愿意汤姆和你一起去吗？）
2） He wants you to see him in the afternoon.（他想让你下午去见他。）
3） Father encouraged him to study harder.（父亲鼓励他更加努力学习。）
4） I will get someone to help you.（我去找个人来帮你。）
“with + 名词 + 过去分词”的独立结构在英语中也很常见，请看例句：
1） With the problem solved， the plan is going on smoothly.（随着这个问题的解决，计划正顺利进行。）
2） Standing there is a torture to her， with so many eyes fixed on her.
1. focus on 2. a number of
3. at all levels 4. make sense
5. make a difference 6. in random order
7. consist of 8. group into
9. as follows 10. needless to say
11. refer to 12. relate…to
13. associate with 14. compare with
1） Psychological research has focused on a number of basic principles that helps memory.
2） Information that does not make any sense to you is difficult to remember
3） There are several ways in which we can make material more meaningful.
4） Material that is organized is better remembered than jumbled information.
5） Association refers to taking the material we want to remember and relating it to something we remember accurately.
1） Chunking consists of grouping separate bits of information.
2） Categorizing is another means of organization.
3） Forming an integrated image with all the information placed in a single mental picture can help us to preserve a memory.
Text B Short-term Memory
1. at a later time
Go ahead with your work， I will give you a call at a later time.
I am not sure if I can remember all this at a later time.
2. in contrast （with / to）
Helen is very talkative. In contrast， her elder sister is silent.
His rudeness was in striking contrast with Jack's thoughtfulness.
3. look up
I don't remember Tom's telephone number， will you please look it up in the telephone book for me？
Look up the dictionary for the meaning of this new word.
4. be unable to
I am really sorry that I was unable to give you a call beforehand.
He was unable to provide us with more information.
5. be released from
He was released from prison after he had been kept there for 5 years.
He was released from a hospital last week after treatment for a disease.
6. be rewarded with
The winner was rewarded with gift of fruit and flowers.
If the rat could find the right door， it would be rewarded with food.