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自考“英语(一)”笔记(83)

2007-04-11 14:01   【 】【我要纠错

  17. senseless adj. 无知觉的;愚蠢的,无意义的

  1)He fell senseless to the ground. (他昏倒在地。)

  2)It was a senseless thing to do so. (这样做毫无意义。)

  3)He put forward some senseless proposals at the meeting. (他在会上提出了几个愚蠢的建议。)

  18. overpopulated adj. 人口过密的

  over-是一个前缀,意思是too much (过度,太过),如:overcrowd (过度,拥挤),overdo (过度烹煮),overeat (吃得过多),overestimate (估计过高)等等。

  popul是个词根,意思是people (人),如:populous (人口稠密的),depopulation (人口减少),populace (大众)等等。

  1) The city is noisy, overpopulated, and seriously polluted. (这座城市喧闹,人口过多而且污染严重。)

  2) Overpopulation has caused many problems.(人口过多已经造成了许多问题。)

  19. cancel v. call off, give up (取消),delete (删除)

  1) The performance will have to be cancelled because of an accident. (由于意外,演出不得不取消。)

  2) The flight was cancelled because of the snow-storm. (航班因暴风雪而取消。)

  3) They won't be able to come tonight, I have to cancel the hotel reservations.

  (他们今晚来不了了,我得取消旅馆预定。

  4)Cancel the nasty words from your composition. (把你作文中的那些下流的词语删掉。)

  20. owe n. 欠(债等),应该向(某人)付出

  1)He owned her 200 dollars. (他欠她200美元。)

  2)He owned the landlady two months' rent. (他欠房东太太两个月的房租。)

  3)She owned her success to hard work. (她把成功归因于辛勤工作。)

  4)He owes his life to a kindhearted man. (多亏一位好心人他才活了下来。)

  21. select v. 选择,挑选,选拔

  1)They select books that are useful to them. (他们挑选那些对他们有用的书。)

  2)You can select friends from your schoolmates. (你可以在同学中挑选朋友。)

  3)They voted to select a new monitor. (他们投票挑选新班长。)

  22. export v. 输出,出口     n. 输出品;输出,出口

  这个单词用作动词时,发音的重音在后面的第二个音节上,用作名词时,重音在第一个音节上。

  ex-是前缀,表示out,port是词根,表示carry.

  1)They banned all exports of weapons. (他们禁止武器出口。)

  2)They grow coffee, cotton and bananas for exports. (他们种植咖啡、棉花和香蕉出口。)

  3)One third of exports from industrial nations go to the developing countries.(工业国家三分之一的出口品进入发展中国家。)

  4)Raw materials are exported at low prices. (原材料的出口价格低廉。)

  本课简介

  从巴西到印度尼西亚,热带雨林被砍伐、被焚烧,也许在2050年之前,它们就会从地球表面消失。最新的数据表明,仅去年一年,被毁的热带雨林面积就大于大不列颠群岛和爱尔兰群岛的面积之和。照此下去,后果严重。生态系统将遭严重破坏,土壤流失加剧,洪水泛滥,旱灾肆虐,全球气候将受影响,珍稀的动、植物也将可能消失。热带雨林的焚毁是引起温室效应的原因之一。温室效应导致极地的冰层回缩,因而平均气温升高,海平面上升。

  热带雨林是一个具有无限潜力的医药百宝箱,2000种热带雨林植物可能有助于抗癌,在当今的药品市场上,每125种从植物提取的药品中就有15种来自于热带雨林。除了植物,热带雨林所独有的珍稀鸟类和动物也在以每年一种的速度灭绝。

  在如此严峻的事实面前,毁林事件仍旧频频发生。原因何在?热带雨林通常位于人口过多的贫穷国家,这些国家的政府无力阻止人们毁坏雨林。政府无钱帮助穷人,所以当穷人们以砍伐树木为生时,他们只能视而不见。另外,对于这些国家来说,珍贵的木材和其他资源是重要的外汇来源,他们急需外汇偿还外债、购买国外设备和其他物品。

  如何解决这一问题?富裕的国家有责任帮助那些贫穷的国家取消外债、发展经济,并教育贫困国家的人们正确对待雨林,合理科学地利用雨林。富裕国家也可以减少使用木材产品。总之保护雨林已刻不容缓。

  本课主要语言点

  1. Rainforests are being cut and burned from Brazil to Indonesia at such a rate that they could well disappear from the earth's surface before the year 2050.

  “are being cut and burned”是现在进行时被动语态。如:

  1) The problem is being discussed now. (这个问题现在正在讨论。)

  2)The car is being repaired by Mr. Smith. (那辆车正由史密斯先生修理。)

  “at such a rate that” (以这样的速度(砍伐、焚烧)以致于…)。我们曾讲过程度副词such和so的区别。一般来说,such的后面接名词,而so的后面接形容词或副词。如:

  1) He spoke for such a long time that people began to feel bored. (他讲了那么长时间,人们开始觉得厌烦了。)

  2) He made such a rapid progress that both his teachers and his parents were happy.

  (他取得了飞快的进步,他的老师和父母都觉得高兴。)

  3) It was such a fine day that we decided to go for a walk. (天气这样好,我们打算去散步。)

  4) The work was so difficult that I couldn't finish it in 2 hours. (这项工作太难,两小时内我完不成。)

  5) She spoke so fast that I could catch her. (她讲话太快,我没听懂他的意思。)

  “they could well disappear” 他们很可能消失。well在本句中的意思是“很可能的,很”。如:

  1) It might well turn out true. (这很可能会成为真的。)

  2) It's well worth trying. (这很值得一试。)

  3) He must be well over forty. (他很可能大大超过四十岁了。)

  2. They are being cleared for valuable timber and other resources to speed up the economic growth of the nations in which they are located.

  本句中的clear用作动词,意思是remove (清除),如:

  1) Brazil's forests were being cleared at the rate of almost 7,000 square miles a year.

  (巴西的森林以每年近7,000平方英里的速度被清除。)

  2)The children were helping me clear weeds from the garden. (孩子们在帮助我清除花园里的杂草。)

  speed up是个常用短语,意思是increase the speed

  1)Tom speeded up and overtook his classmates. (汤姆加快了速度,赶上他的同学们。)

  注意speed用在词组动词中时,其过去式和过去分词为speeded, 其他情况下,其过去式和过去分词为sped.

  2) Africa's population growth speeded up. (非洲的人口增长加速。)

  3) Bad housing and poverty speed up the breakdown of family life. (恶劣的住房条件和贫困加快了家庭的破裂。)

  表示“坐落于某地”时,locate常用在被动语态中,be located.in which they are located中的they指rainforests, which指nations.

  1) The factory is located in the suburb. (那家工厂坐落于郊区。)

  2) The hospital is located in the center of the city. (医院坐落于市中心。)

  3. According to many scientists, the burning of rainforests is also directly contributing to the so-called greenhouse effect.

  contribute to在本句中的意思是help to bring about (促战,造成)。如:

  1) Your suggestion will contribute to solving the problem. (你的建议将有助于解决这个问题。)

  2)Carelessness contributed to his errors. (粗心大意造成了他的错误。)

  so-called用作形容词,意思是“所谓的”。如:

  1) He was deceived by his so-called friend. (他被所谓的朋友骗了。)

  2) The so-called Christian even showed no love to his own children.

  (这个所谓的基督徒连对自己的孩子都没有爱心。)

  effect在句中用作名词,意思是“效果,效应”,在第三单元中我们对名词effect和动词affect做过详细讲解,再请看几个例句。

  1) The sound effect of this movie is great. (这部电影的音响效果很棒。)

  2) Excessive smoking will have a bad effect on your health. (吸烟过多将会给你的身体带来不良影响。)

  3) Too much rainfall affected the harvest. (过多的雨水影响了收成。)

  4)I hope what I have said won't affect your decision. (希望我的话不会影响你的决定。)

  4. It is a medicine chest of unlimited potential.

  chest可以指胸腔或柜子、箱子,medicine chest是“药箱”的意思。

  potential在句中用作名词,意思是“潜力”,potential也可用作形容词,意思是“潜在的”。

  1) They are determined to tap their potential to the full. (他们决心充分挖掘自己的潜力。)

  2) The aim of this advertisement is to attract potential customers. (这则广告的目标是吸引潜在的顾客。)

  3) You have to know more about the potential demand of the market.

  (你得对市场上可能达到的需求量有更多的了解。)

  5. In today's pharmaceutical market 15 of the 125 drugs derived from plants were discovered in the rainforest. derived from plants是现在分词短语做定语,相当于被动语态的定语从句。如:

  1) The beer bought from the supermarket is very light. (在超市买的那啤酒口味很淡。)

  2) The candy made from cactus tastes strange. (用仙人掌做的糖果味道很怪。)

  15 of the 125意思是125中的15.再如two of the three (三个中的两个)

  derive from意思是get from, obtain from, 如:

  1) Much of his knowledge is derived from books. (他的许多知识得自书本。)

  2) He derived his stories from his experiences in the countryside. (他的故事来自于他在农村的经历。)

  6. Rare birds and animals that cannot be found anywhere else in the world have been disappearing at the rate of one a year since the turn of the century.

  句中的else是形容词,常接在不定代词的后面,表示“其他的,别的”,如:

  1) Is there anything else I can do for you?(我还能为你做些别的事吗?)

  2) Did anybody else know this? (有其他人知道这件事吗?)

  3) He didn't go anywhere else. (他没去其他地方。)

  one a year意思是“每年一种”。这种表达方式在英语中很常用,如:

  1) Take the medicine three times a day. (每日三次服这种药。)

  2) They met three times a week. (他们每周见三次。)

  3) He finishes 5 books a month. (他一个月读完五本书。)

  当时间状语用since引导时,句子中的时态常用完成时。如:

  1) He has been living here since he came to Nanjing 5 years ago. (自从他五年前来到南京,他就一直住在这儿。)

  2) They haven't seen each other since last May. (自去年五月起,他们一直没见过面。)

  turn在句中做名词,意思是“转折点”。since the turn of the century意思是“自本世纪初(或上世纪末)。”

  1) He hasn't written home since the turn of the year. (自去年底以来他还未给家里写过信。)

  2) At the turn of the two centuries, they had many hearty wishes for their family.(在两个世纪交替之时,他们对家人有许多衷心的祝愿。)

本文转载链接:自考“英语(一)”笔记(83)

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