4. Scientists know that the combination of extreme heat and pressure changes carbon into diamonds.
1） Extreme cold can wake a hibernating animal. （极度的寒冷能使正在冬眠的动物苏醒。）
2） They will have to endure extreme discomfort in winter. （冬天时，他们将不得不忍受极度的不适。）
1） Water changes into vapour when heated. （水加热后转变为蒸气。）
2） Go to the bank and you can easily change these dollars into RMB. （你去银行就能很容易地把这些美元换成人民币。）
5. Such heat and pressure exist only in the hot， liquid mass of molten rock deep inside the earth.
1） I don't believe he could make such a mistake. （我相信他不会犯这样的错误的。）
2） How can you go out on such a rainy day？ （在这样的雨天里，你怎么能出门？）
3） He spoke so fast that I couldn't follow. （他说话太快，我听不懂。）
4） I'm so glad you could come. （你能来我真高兴。）
1） a mass of hot air（一团热气）
2） a mass of sand（一堆沙）
3） Rain occurs when a mass of warm air is laden with water. （一团云聚集大量的水蒸气就形成了雨。）
1） a mass meeting （群众大会）
2） mass education （大众教育）
3） mass media （大众传媒）
4） Mass production could very well cut the cost. （大规模生产可以降低成本。）
6. It is thought that millions of years ago this liquid mass pushed upward through cracks in the earth's crust.
It is thought that…是一个很常用的句型，类似的句型在英语中很多，比如：
1） It is / was， has been…， reported that…
2） It is / was， has been…， stated that…
3） It is / was， has been…， pointed out that…
4） It is / was， has been…， mentioned that…
5） It is / was， has been…， believed that…
7. A. There are only four areas where very many diamonds have been formed.
B. The first known area was in India， where diamonds were found thousands of years ago.
1） Is there a shop around where we can get some fruit？ （附近有什么商店可以买到水果吗？）
2） This is the place where we met yesterday. （这是我们昨天碰头的地方。）
3） The small town， where he once worked， has turned to be a modern city. （他曾经工作过的那座小城，已经变成现代化的城市了。）
8. In the 1600's…（十七世纪）
In the 1720's…（十八世纪二十年代）
In the 1800's…（十九世纪）
请注意年代的表达方法，以上的年代也可以表达为in the 1600s； in the 1720s； in the 1800s.如果我们要表达“在十七世纪初（中、末）期”，则可以说in the early（mid， late） 1600's/1600s.
9. Diamonds became very popular with the kings and queens of Europe.
become / be popular with / among是一个常用词组，意思是“受…欢迎”，请看下面的句子：
1） These Chinese handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends. （这些中国工艺品很受外国朋友的喜爱。）
2） His novels are popular among young people. （他的小说很受年轻人的喜爱。）
3） Classical music is popular among more and more people. （古典音乐受到越来越多的人的喜爱。）
10. India's supply of diamonds was finally running out after 2，500 yeas of mining the stones.
1） Economic stability can be reached if demand and supply are in balance. （如果供求关系平衡的话，就能实现经济的稳定。）
2） Many materials are in short supply. （许多材料供应不足。）
3） The increasing world population will put a strain on food supply. （不断增长的世界人口将对粮食供应带来重负。）
4） You have to supply him with an answer. （你得给他提供一个答案。）
5） Most towns are supplied with tap-water and electricity. （大多数城镇都有自来水和电力供应。）
1） Time is running out. We have to hurry. （时间快到了，我们得快点。）
2） My patience is running out. （我快要耐不住了。）
3） His luck seemed to have run out. （他的好运似乎结束了。）
我们也可以用run out来表达类似的意思，但run out of的主语应该是“某人”。如：
1） They have run out of money， so they have to find a job. （他们钱用完了，所以得找一份工作。）
2） I have run out of ink. （我的墨水用完了。）
11. People would pick up handfuls of gravel from the bottom of the streams and sort out the diamonds.
1） He gave me a basketful of beaches. （他给了我满满一篮子桃子。）
2） She put a spoonful of salt in the soup. （她往汤里撒了满满一勺盐。）
3） Tom is carrying an armful of books. （汤姆抱着一捆书。）
1） Sort out those of bigger size and put them in a box. （把大点的整理出来，放在盒子里。）
2） It took quite a while to sort out all our luggage. （把我们所有的行李整理好花了不少时间。）
1） There is some deposit in the bottom of the teapot. （茶壶底部有些沉淀物。）
2） At the bottom of the mountain， there is a beautiful village. （在山脚下有个美丽的村子。）
3） I felt grateful to you from the bottom of my heart. （我衷心地感谢你。）
4） Bottoms up. （干杯。）
12. These diamonds were probably carried from where they were formed to India by great sheets of moving ice that covered parts of the earth 20，000 years ago.
where they were formed是where引出的名词性从句，作介词from的宾语。请看下面的句子：
1） He didn't say anything about where the accident took place. （他对事故在哪儿发生的只字未提。）
2） She hasn't made up her mind as to where she should go for the holiday. （她还没有决定到哪儿去度假。）
13. It flows over boards thickly coated with grease.
在本句中的定语从句thickly coated with greases前面省略了which/that are.coat一般做名词用，意思是“外套”或“（动物的）皮毛”。在本句中coat作动词用，意思是“在…上涂（包）着”，如：
1） These pills are coated with sugar. （这些药丸外面包着糖衣。）
2） Don't jump on the bush piles， they are ice-coated and slippery. （不要在灌木堆上跳，上面盖着冰，很滑。）
14. Since diamonds stick to grease， they are left behind by the rocks and mud which flow down the tables.
1） I'm sure father hasn't read the book because several pages are stuck together. （我敢肯定父亲没有看过那本书，因为有几页还粘在一起。）
2） It's important for nurses to stick to the rules. （对护士来说，遵守规定是很重要的。）
3） Stick to your post and make sure everything is ok. （坚守你的岗位，确保一切正常。）
1） Take care not to leave anything behind. （小心别丢下任何东西。）
2） Look forward to the bright future and leave all your worries and fears behind. （期盼光明的未来，把所有的担心和恐惧抛在身后。）
15. Experienced diamond miners can tell a diamond immediately.
1） I cannot tell her from her twin sister. （我无法分辨出她和她的孪生妹妹。）
2） Can you tell which is my school-bag？ （你能分辨出哪一个是我的书包吗？）
3） It is important for you to tell right from wrong. （分辨出正误很重要。）
1. make a cut in sth. 2. change…into
3. be made from 4. become popular with
5. run out 6. pick up
7. handfuls of 8. sort out
9. carry from 10. be coated with
11. stick to 12. leave behind
13. tell…（from） 14. find out
Text B The Difference between Plants and Animals
1. difference between…and
Will you please tell me the difference between a horse and a seahorse？
I cannot hear any difference between the American pronunciation and the British pronunciation for this word.
He is not a person to rely on as he is neither honest nor sincere.
I have neither seen him nor heard from him since we last met.
3. look up
Father didn't look up from his book when I entered the sitting room.
The little boy didn't dare to look up at his teacher.
4. a matter of
Everybody would pay some attention to the contest as it is a matter of honor.
Don't panic. This is a matter of record and there is nothing to worry about.
The products of this factory will be supplied to people throughout the country.
He said that a person should be honest and upright throughout his life.
6. be satisfied with
Tom was fully aware of the consequence when his father saw his test paper.
The teacher was satisfied with the students' performance.
7. take place
Great changes have taken place in China in the past 20 years.
The accident took place when people were all fast asleep.
8. lie in
The importance of this book lies in its later influence.
The root of all these events lay in history.
9. be classed as
He was classed as a genius.
Some kinds of seaweed are animals but they used to be classed as plants.
10. hold good
This rule may hold good for you but not for me.
His answer doesn't hold good for this specific question.
11. live on
Cows live on grass.
The old man lives on the government pension.
12. work wonders
I don't think this medicine will work wonders.
We didn't think he could pull through this time but he worked wonders again.
13. take in
Their club took in some new members last week.
He took in his guest and offered him a cup of coffee.
14. suck up
The plants suck up a lot of water.
He sucks all the information you gave him.
15. take up
He took up the newspaper and began to read.
She took up English when she was only five.
All the window seats had been taken up when I got on the bus.