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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(20)

2007-01-09 16:59   【 】【我要纠错

Unit10(第29讲—第31讲)

  本课简介

  在“Scientific Attitudes”这篇课文中,作者指出科学始于人类对周围环境的疑问。当人类具有去伪存真的能力时,科学也开始迅猛发展。好奇和想像是有助于推动科学发现和发展重要素质。作者还认为具有科学头脑的人相信“因果”关系。任何现象的存在必有原因,只是有些尚未被发现。思想开放、无偏见;尊重别人的观点;凡事以事实为依据都是科学的态度。

  人物背景

  1.Benjamin Franklin:富兰克林(1706-1790年),美国政治家及科学家。美国18世纪名列华盛顿后的最著名的人物,参加起草独立宣言。在科学方面进行过有名的电实验,并对电做了理论说明。只受过极短的正规教育,全靠勤奋自学成才。法国经济学家杜尔哥颂扬他“从天空抓到雷电,从专制统治者手中夺回权力”。

  2.Thomas Edison:爱迪生(1847-1931年),美国发明家。技术历史中显著的天才之一,拥有白炽灯、留声机、电影放映机等1093种发明专利,还创办了世界上第一个工业研究实验室。

  3.Galileo:伽利略(1564-1642年),意大利物理学家及天文学家。对现代科学思想的发展作出过重大贡献。最早用望远镜观察天体,并曾用大量事实证明地球环绕太阳转,否定地心说。

  4.Louis Pasteur:巴斯德(1822-1895年)法国化学家及微生物学家。证明发酵及传染病是微生物引起的,创始并首先应用疫苗接种以预防狂犬病、鸡霍乱等,挽救了法、英等国的养蚕业和啤酒业。

  5.Edward Jenner:金纳(1749-1823年),英国医生,牛痘接种法创始人。历经周折使牛痘接种法得以公认,并传播到欧美大陆及全世界,使天花的病死率大为下降。

  本课语言点

  1.Science had its beginning when man started asking questions about his environment.

  句中的beginning是一个名词,意思是“开始、开端、” 例如:

  1)We had too much rain at the beginning of the month. (月初雨水过多。)

  2)He has made a good beginning in the field of publishing. (他在出版领域做出了良好的开端。)

  在动词start的后面,可以用动名词作宾语,也可以用不定式。一般来说,如果表示有意识地“开始做某事”,多用动名词,否则用不定式更多一些,如:

  1)We started working on it in 1999. (我们是1999年开始这项工作的。)

  2)Suddenly it started to rain.(突然下起雨来。)

  2.He sought answers to these and other questions.

  本句中的sought是动词seek的过去分词。seek answers to…“寻找…答案”,to是介词,常与answer这类名词连用。例如:

  1)The answer to your question is very simple. (你的问题答案很简单)

  2)I haven't found the solution to the problem yet. (我还没找到解决这个问题的办法)

  3)He couldn't find the key to the door. (他找不到开这个门的钥匙)

  3.Not all his answer were correct, but at least he did want to know.

  Not all his answer were correct 这是一个部分否定的句子。部分否定一般用下列三种形式表达;

  A.主语中有all/both/every/each, etc+否定谓语

  B.主语中有not + all /both/every/each, etc+肯定谓语

  C.否定谓语+ all /both/every/each, etc

  1)All the students are not in the classroom.(学生们并不都在教室里。)

  这句话相当于:Not all the students are in the classroom.

  2)Every computer is not of high quality. (并非每一台计算机都是高质量的。)

  这句话相当于:Not every computer is of high quality.

  3)I didn't see both of them. (我只见到了他们两个中的一个。)

  这句话相当于:I only saw one of the two men

  … but at least he did want to know. 句子中的did是助动词,随人称和时态的变化而变化,用于强调,如

  1)He does know the way to the library. (他的确知道去图书馆的路)

  2)I do enjoy pop music. (我的确喜欢流行音乐)

  3)They did give us a lot of help. (他们的确帮了我们不少忙)

  4.The child wants to take apart a watch to see what makes it work.

  句子中“to take apart a watch”是不定式做宾语,后面的“to see what makes it work”则是不定式做目的状语。请看下面的例句:

  1)He offered to help me. (他提出要帮助我。)

  2)I didn't expect to find you here.(没想到在这儿碰到你。)

  3)We all want to learn more knowledge. (我们都想学更多的知识。)

  4)To do it well, you have to make more efforts. (你得更努力,才能做好。)

  5)To protect the child, he laid down his life. (为了保护那个孩子,他献出了自己的生命。)

  6)They ran over to welcome the hero. (他们跑过去欢迎那位英雄。)

  在上述6个句子中,前3句是不定式做宾语,而后3句则是不定式做目的状语。

  take apart 的意思是“拆开”,如:

  1)He took the toy apart but found nothing unusual.(他把玩具拆开但没发现任何异常。)

  2)I'll have to take the bike apart to see what is wrong.(我得把自行车拆开看有什么毛病。)

  5. He combined his curiosity with imagination and carried out his well-known experiment to show that lightening and electric spark are the same thing.

  combine with 是一个常用词组,意思为“使结合;使联合”:例如:

  1)Experience is fine when it is combined with the right personality.   (经验与健全的人格相结合是很好的。)

  well-known是一个复合形容词,意思为“出名的,众所周知的”,例如:

  A well-known film critic (有名的影评家),a well-known voice (熟悉的声音)。除了做定语用以外,well-known(或写成well known)也可以做表语,如:

  1)It is well known that excessive drinking and smoking can be harmful to one's health.(众所周知抽烟喝酒过多有害健康。)

  2)It is well known that education of young people is vital to the future of a country.(众所周知年轻人的教育对一个国家的未来至关重要。)

  6. Scientifically minded people believe in a “cause-and effect”relationship

  句子中的minded是一个形容词,在minded前面常用形容词或副词,组成一个复合形容词,如:a narrow-minded person(一个心胸狭窄的人),the absent-minded young man(心不在焉的年轻人),open-minded people(思想开放的人们),liberally-minded parents(思想开明的父母), a politically-minded old man(有政治头脑的老人)

  cause-and-effect是一个复合形容词,修饰后面的名词relationship.如此构成的复合形容词在英语中很常见,如:

  1)a never-to-be-forgotten moment (永远难忘的时刻)

  2)an epoch-making event(划时代的大事)

  3)a seven-year-old boy(一个七岁男孩)

  4)a wait-and-see attitude(等着瞧的态度)

  7. …there is a good reason why some leaves turn red and others yellow in the fall

  句子中的why是一个关系副词,它所引导的是一个定语从句,请看例句:

  1)He didn't give the reason why was absent yesterday (他没有提到昨天缺席的理由)

  2) The reason why he missed the train was that he got up late (他没赶上火车的原因是他起床晚了)

  3) This is the reason why he did it(这就是他做那件事的原因)

  有时,我们也会看到在reason后面用for的情况,用for的时候,后面只能接名词,或动名词短语,不能接句子,如:

  1)I don't know the reason for his absence.(我不知道他缺席的理由)

  2)One of the reasons for coming to England was to make money.(到英国来的原因之一是挣钱)

  3)There is no reason for his poor work.(他的工作干不好是没有理由的)

  句子中的fall是一个名词,意思为“秋天”,例如:

  1)I met her again in the fall semester .(我在秋学期又见到了她)

  2)They moved to Washington in the fall of  1998.(一九九八年秋天他们搬到了华盛顿)

  8.In cases where the explanation is unknown the scientific point of view is that there is a reason if it can only be discovered

  句子中的where 是关系副词,引导定语从句,修饰名词cases,因此,in cases where the explanation is unknown可以译为“在对一些的解释还不为人们所知的情况下。”用关系副词 where引导定语从句也是很常见的,如:

  1)Let's think of a situation where this idiom can be used (我们来想一个可以使用这个习语的场合)

  2)Is there a library around where we can borrow books?(附近有什么图书馆可以借书吗?)

  句子中that引导的是一个表语从句。表语从句和主句中的连系动词连用,结构为:主语+连系动词+表词从句,例如:

  1) My idea is that we should do it as soon as possible(我的建议是我们应该尽早做这件事)

  2) It looks that it is going to rain(看起来天要下雨)

  句子中的if…。only 在此表示尚欠缺的唯一条件,if it can only be discovered 可以译为“ 只是尚未被发现罢了”。

  9. This means the ability to face the facts as they are regardless of what one has previously thought.句子中的as是一个连词,表示方式,意思是“按照;如同;例如”

  1) We must state the facts as they are.(我们必须如实地陈述事实)

  2) Give me the bike as it is, I'll get it repaired (把自行车照实给我,我去修理)

  Regardless of是一个常用词组,意思是“不顾”,例如:

  1) Our manager often acts regardless of consequences (我们经理做事常常不顾后果)

  2) He set out regardless of the heavy snow(他不顾天降大雪出发了)

  10.The worker in science must face facts whether they are pleasant or unpleasant.

  whether…or引导的是一个让步状语从句,意思是“无论,不管,”例如:

  1) Whether you believe it or not it's truth (无论你信不信,那总是事实)

  2) He will be here on time whether he drives or takes the train(不管他开汽车来还是乘火车来,他总会准时到达)

  11.Scientists must be able to change their thinking and to adapt their theories to new facts as they are discovered.

  adapt 意为“使适应,使配合”,常指改变以适应新的情况,后面常接介词to, 例如:

  1)Some animals will modify their behavior to adapt to their environment(有些动物会改变习性来适应环境)

  2)We have to adapt our thinking to the new conditions (我们得使自己的思想适应新的情况)

  请注意区别动词adapt和adopt,在词汇部分,我们已作了讲解。

  12. A scientific truth offers an explanation that is acceptable only in the light of what is known at a particular time

  in the light of 是一个常用词组,意思是“根据,按照;考虑到”,例如:

  1) To find truth in the light of science is the only correct way(凭借科学探求真理是唯一正确的方法)

  2) We must apply Marxism in the light of China's specific conditions(我们必须按照中国的具体情况应用马克思主义)

  This should be discussed more fully in the light of the developments in the University(考虑到学校的发展,这个问题应该讨论得更充分一些。)

  本课主要词组

  1. seek answers t

  2. lay aside

  3. be curious about

  4. take apart

  5. combine with

  6. carry out

  7. believe in

  8. ergardless of

  9. whether…or

  10. be willing to

  11. succeed in

  12. in advance

  13. adapt to

  14. make up one's mind

  15. once and for all

  16. in the light of

  17. respect for

  18. come up

  19. laugh at

  20. change one's mind

  21. experiment on

  Text B   solving problems scientifically

  有用的词和词组   Useful words and expressions:

  1.  arouse one's curiosity

  Once his curiosity is aroused, he will try every means to make everything clear.

  2.  first of all

  First of all I want to thank you with all my sincerity.

  3.  arise

  New problems will arise when old ones are solved.

  4.  result from

  His failure resulted from his lack of experience.

  5.  bring about

  The new policy has brought about a lot of changes in the rural areas.

  6.  in need of

  I think we will be in need of your help soon.

  7.  build up

  How can I build up my confidence when I meet failures time and again?

  8.  modify

  Some animals will modify their behavior to adapt to new environment.

  9.  check with

  I am not sure if these answers check with the key in the teacher's book.

  10.turn out to be

  His experiment turned out to be a great success.

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