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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(13)

2007-01-09 15:41   【 】【我要纠错

Unit7(第20讲—第22讲)

  Text A   Families

  本课主要单词

  1. definition  n. 定义,释义

  define  v. 解释;给…定义;明确表示

  He simply said it was very difficult for him to give a definition for that word.(他只是说要他给那个词下个定义是很困难的。)

  The dictionary gives us several definitions, which makes me more confused about the meaning of this word. (辞典给了我们好几个释义,这使我对该词的意思更加困惑。)

  People define him as a genius. (人们说他是天才。)

  I have already defined my position on that issue. (我已经明确表示了我在这个问题上的立场。)

  2. marriage  n. 婚姻,结婚

  marry  v. 结婚

  married  adj. 结了婚的

  No one expected that their marriage could break up because of a misunderstanding.(谁也没想到他们的婚姻竟会因为误解而破裂。)

  Her second marriage lasted only 6 weeks. (她的第二次婚姻只维持了六个星期。)

  They are in love with each other and wish to marry. (他们彼此相爱,希望结婚。)

  Her parents said they wouldn't allow her to marry that poor young man.(她的父母说他们不会允许她与那个穷苦的年轻人结婚。)

  He was 35, married with two children. (他35岁,已婚,有两个孩子。)

  She was married to the young artist last month. (她上个月与那位年轻的艺术家结了婚。)

  (请注意:要表述某人同某人结婚,不能用sb. marries / married with sb. else,而应该用sb. marries/married sb. else 或者sb. is/was married to sb. else 来表述。)

  3. descend  v. 下降;传下,遗传;堕落

  descendant  n. 子孙,后裔

  ascend  v. 上升;登高;追溯到某个时期

  ascendant  n. 优势;祖先(与descendant相对而言)         adj. 优势的

  The sun descended behind the hills. (太阳下了山。)

  The customs have descended to our generation. (这些习俗一直传到我们这一代。)

  He was so poor that he descended to begging. (他穷得只好乞讨度日。)

  As descendants of the early settlers, they were tolerant and hardworking.(作为早期移民的后裔,他们忍耐而勤劳。)

  They are descendants of an Indian tribe. (他们是一支印第安部落的后裔。)

  The airplane ascended into the cloud. (飞机高高飞入云端。)

  Queen Victoria ascended ascended the throne in 1837. (维多利亚女王于1837年登上王位。)

  His party is no longer in the ascendant. (他那一派已经优势不再。)

  We still have the ascendant position in world politics. (我们在国际政治中仍占优势地位。)

  4.ancestor n. 祖先,祖宗

  His ancestors came to America on the Mayflower. (他的祖先乘“五月花”号来到美洲。)

  Their grandfathers were the ancestors of some of the well-known families in Boston.(他们的祖父辈是波士顿几家望族的祖先。)

  ancestry  n. [总称] 列祖列宗;血统

  He was born of good ancestry. (他出身名门。)

  She is an American of German ancestry. (她是德国血统的美国人。)

  5. household  n. 家庭,户;一家人

  adj. 家庭的,家常的

  How many people are there in your household? (你们家有几口人?)

  Early in the morning the household got into a car and headed for the beach.(一大早,全家人坐上汽车往海边驶去。)

  Household chores are not just women's work. (家务杂事不只是妇女的活。)

  Einstein is a household name in the civilized world. (爱因斯坦是文明世界里家喻户晓的名字。)

  6. relative  n. 亲属,亲戚    adj. 相对的

  His wife had to visit some of her relatives for a few days. (他妻子需要几天时间去看娘家的亲戚。)

  The apes are man's closest relatives. (猿是与人类亲缘关系最为接近的动物。)

  He told me that his aunt was his only immediate relative. (他告诉我说姑母是他唯一的至亲。)

  All human values are relative. (人类的一切价值标准都是相对的。)

  The Jackson's are living in relative comfort now. (现在,杰克逊一家生活过得比较舒适。)

  7. traditional  adj. 传统的

  tradition  n. 传统

  Alice said she would be happy to have a traditional Chinese wedding.(爱丽丝说能有一个传统的中国婚礼她会很开心。)

  More and more Westerners believe in traditional Chinese medicine now.(现在,越来越多的西方人相信传统中医了。)

  He reassured his grandfather that he would keep up the family tradition by all means.(他向祖父保证,他会尽一切可能保持家庭传统。)

  In his lecture he talked briefly about the history and traditions of the movement.(在他的讲座中,他简述了那次运动的历史和传统。)

  8. security  n. 完全;保障;把握

  secure   v. 保卫,保证,获得    adj. 完全的

  We are all concerned for the security of the passengers. (我们都很担心旅客的安全。)

  Children rely on their parents for love and security. (孩子们靠父母给他们爱和完全感。)

  The girl delivered her speech with great security. (那个女孩满怀信心地讲演着。)

  She felt secure only when she made sure that both doors were locked.(只有确信两道门都锁上了时,她才感到放心。)

  We all dream of living a quiet and secure life. (我们都梦想过上平静、安定的生活。)

  His carefulness secured him from making more mistakes. (他的细心保证了他不犯更多的错误。)

  His father couldn't believe that he secured such a good job. (他父亲不相信他找到了这么好的一份工作。)

  (注意:securities 指证券)

  9.  basically  adv. 基本上;从根本上说,大致说来

  basic  adj. 基础的,根本的;初步的;主要的

  base  n. 基础,根据;基地      v. 把…基于

  My work is basically to train students' ability in reading and writing.(从根本上说,我的工作是训练学生的读、写能力。)

  There are basically two types of families: nuclear families and extended families.(大致说来,有两类家庭:核心家庭和大家庭。)

  The basic theme of these stories is more or less the same. (这些故事的主题大致相同。)

  They are trying to solve the basic economic problems. (他们正试图解决那些基本的经济问题。)

  What is your basic aim in life? (你基本的生活目标是什么?)

  The base of his argument is that our after service is not very satisfactory.(他的论据是我们的售后服务不十分令人满意。)

  The weary soldiers marched back to their base. (疲惫不堪的士兵们列队返回基地。)

  We should base our opinions on facts. (我们的观点应该基于事实的基础之上。)

  This film is based on the life story of a general. (这部影片是根据一位将军的生平改编的。)

  10.nuclear  adj. 核子的,核能的;中心的

  Mao Zetong used to say that under no circumstances would China be the first to use nuclear weapons.(毛泽东曾经说过在任何情况下,中国都不会第一个使用核武器。)

  Greece was once a nuclear civilization of the world. (希腊一度是世界文明的中心。)

  a nuclear explosion  核爆炸    nuclear electricity  核电力

  a nuclear power plant  核电站  nuclear technology  核技术

  the nuclear age  核时代       nuclear monopoly  核垄断

  nuclear waste  核废料         a nuclear nation  拥有核武器的国家

  nuclear bomb  核弹           nuclear disarmament  核裁军

  nuclear family  核心家庭       nuclear-free zone  无核区

  nuclear fuel  核燃料           nuclear reactor  核反应堆

  11. nucleus  n. 核,核心,中心;起点,开始

  These young people formed the nucleus of the internet bar. (这些年轻人成了网吧的核心。)

  The strange behavior of the absent-minded professor became the nucleus of all the stories.(“心不在焉”教授的奇异举止成为所有故事的中心内容。)

  12.  agricultural  adj. 农业的

  agriculture  n. 农业

  More and more modern agricultural methods are used in that village.(在那个村子里,人们越来越多地使用现代农业方法。)

  The agricultural production is on the rise this year. (今年的农业生产呈上升态势。)

  His solution greatly improved the agriculture in this area. (他的方法极大地推动了这一地区的农业发展。)

  13. industrial  adj. 工业的,产业的

  industrialize  v. (使)工业化

  The industrial output of this city doubled last year. (去年这个城市的工业产量增加了一倍。)

  The Industrial Revolution influenced the whole world. (工业革命影响了全世界。)

  The country has been steadily industrializing. (这个国家一直在稳步实现工业化。)

  14. post-industrial  adj. 后工业化的

  post- 是一个前缀,表示“后”:如:

  post-war policies  战后政策

  postdoctoral  博士后的

  postgraduate courses  研究生课程

  post-harvest storage  收后贮藏

  postimpressionism  后印象主义

  15.earner  n. 赚钱者;获得收入者

  earnings  n. 挣得的财物;收入,利润

  earn  v. 挣得,获得

  How many earners are there in your family? (你们家几个人挣钱?)

  Father is not the only earner in the family. (父亲不是家里唯一挣钱的人。)

  What are you going to do with your earnings? (挣来的钱你打算干什么用?)

  He earns 40 dollars a day. (他每天挣四十美元。)

  How did he make his living? (他靠什么谋生?)

  His brave act won him the name of a hero. (他的英勇行为使他得到了英雄的名声。)

  16. split  v. 撕裂;分开;使分裂;分担      n. 分裂,裂口

  He is splitting the firewood with an axe. (他正用斧子劈木柴。)

  They split the cost of the party between them. (他们两人分担了宴会的费用。)

  They split up after years of marriage. (他们俩结婚多年之后分开了。)

  She split with her boyfriend last week. (上个星期她与她的男友绝交了。)

  Mother mended a split in my trousers. (妈妈缝好了我裤子上的一条裂缝。)

  split-hair 极其精确的;过分琐细的

  split second 一刹那

  split-level 错层式的

  split personality 分裂人格

  17. divorce  v. 离婚;与…离婚  n. 离婚

  The child's parents divorced last month. (这孩子父母上个月离了婚。)

  He divorced his wife. (他同妻子离了婚。)

  I don't think it is possible to divorce sports from politics. (我认为把体育与政治分离开来是不可能的。)

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