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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(18)

2007-01-09 16:22   【 】【我要纠错

Unit9(第26讲—第28讲)

  本课简介

  在learned words and popular words这篇课文中,作者对学术词汇和普通词汇进行了定义。讲述了两类词汇之间的差异,并且指出把词分为学术的和普通的方便而且有道理。但是人们必须注意,把普通词汇理解为属于大众所有的词,而不是某个特定阶层的人们所拥有的东西。学术词汇也并非有学问之人专用,只是它的存在是由于书籍和文学的培养而不是日常会话的实际需要。

  本课主要语言点

  1. In every cultivated language there are two great classes of words which, taken together, make up the whole vocabulary.

  class在本句中的意思是“种类”,相当于type, category.如:

  1)It is very difficult to meet the needs of various classes of readers.(要满足各种读者的需要十分困难)

  2)How many classes are you going to divide these books? (你打算把这些书分成几类?)

  class 还常用来表示“等级”,如:a second-class hotel (二等旅馆);

  an economy-class ticket (经济舱票);fly first class (乘头等舱航空旅行)。

  class 也可以用动词用,意思是“把 …分类;把…看作”,如:

  1)At 19 you are still classed as a teenager.(到了十九岁,你仍旧是青少年。)

  2)He was classed as a genius (他被看作为天才)

  make up 在本句中的意思是“组成、构成”,请看例句:

  1)Twenty-six boys and twenty-four girls make up the class (二十六名男生和二十四名女生组成了这个班)

  2)Twelve doctors made up the medical team (十二名医生组成医疗队)

  用被动语态时则应用be made up of,如:

  This engine is made up of 490 parts (这台发动机是由四百九十个部件装配而成的)

  taken together 过去分词短语做后置定语,对中心词做一些附加说明,相当于一个非限定性定语从句,要用逗号和中心词隔开,如:

  All the letters in the drawer, written in pencil, are from my brother.(抽屉里的这些用铅笔写的信都是我弟弟写的。)

  2. First, there are those words with which we become familiar in ordinary conversation, which we learn, that is to say, from the members of our own family and from our friends, and which we should know and use even if we could not read or write.

  句子中which引导的都是定语从句,修饰中心词words.第一个which的前面有介词with,这儿的with是familiar with中的介词前置了。Familiar with 意为“熟悉”。如:Are you familiar with the man standing over there?(站在那边的那个人你熟悉吗?)

  请注意familiar with 与familiar to 的区别,familiar with 的主语通常是人,而familiar to的主语通常是物。如:

  1)I am not familiar with this place.

  2) This place is mot familiar to me.

  that is to say 是插入语,其作用是对整个一句话进行解释,类似的插入语还有so to speak, if I may say so, if you don't mind等等,如:

  1)I'd really rather not go, if you don't mind 我确实不想去,你如果不介意的话。

  2) The new emperor was, so to speak, a puppet.新皇帝可以说是个傀儡。

  3.They concern the common things of life, and are the stock in trade of who speak the language concern 在句中的意思是“涉及,有关于”,如:

  1)Don't interfere in things that don't concern you (别干预跟你无关的事)。

  2)The energy problem concerns us all (能源问题关系到我们每个人)

  stock的意思很多,如“存货”,“股票”,“公债券”,“牲畜”等。

  1)They hold a rich stock of information (他们掌握着丰富的材料)

  2)You cannot buy it because it's out of stock (你买不成了,货品已经脱销)

  3)He used to have a stock farm (他曾经拥有一个畜牧场)

  4)The fridge was carefully stocked up with food.(冰箱里周到地放满了食品)

  stock in trade 也可以写成stock in trade,意思是“例行工作”,“常规”,如:

  1)Complaints were a stock in trade of an airport manager's job (机场经理的工作就是常常面对投诉)

  2)He was the master of black humor, it was his stock in trade (他是黑色幽默大师,黑色幽默是他的专长)

  4.Such words may be called “popular”, since they belong to the people at large and are not the possession of a limited class only.

  since 在句中引导的是一个原因状语从句,请看例句:

  1)Since it was Saturday, he got up very late (因为是周六,他起床很晚。)

  2)You can take the place of him since he is not interested (你可以取代他,因为他对这事不感兴趣)

  at large 在本句中的意思是“整个”,这个词组的意思还有很多,请看下面的句子:

  1)The people at large love peace (大多数人热爱和平)

  2)The virus is still at large (这种病毒还在蔓延)

  3)The murderer is still at large (杀人犯仍逍遥法外)

  4)He talked at large about his plans (他详尽地谈了自己的计划)

  5)They made the arrangements at large (他们随意地做了安排 )

  5. 请注意区别与possession 有关的两个词组:in possession of sth……和 in the possession of sb.

  1)He is in possession of this house (他拥有这所房子)

  2)The house is in the possession of him

  3)On the other hand, our language includes large number of words which are relatively seldom used in ordinary conversation.

  英语中有许多表示启承转合的词语,阅语中注意这些词有助于我们提高理解力,写作中注意用这些词,有助于我们把文章写得连贯、有条理。On the other hand 在本句中用来表示不同或相反的语气,在前一段中讲了popular word 这一段中作者则要讲讲learned words. 表示不同或相反语气的词还有很多,比如:Conversely, however, on the contrary, unlike, whereas, yet等等。

  前面我们提到过number可以与可数名词连用,而amount可与不可数名词连用,如:

  1)A large number of students have passed the exam (许多学生已经通过了考试)

  2)They paid a large amount of money for the house (他们付了一大笔钱买了这座房子)

  6.Their meanings are known to every educated person, but there is little occasion to use them at home

  occasion 通常可以做可数名词用,意思是“时刻、场合”;也可以做不可数名词用,意思是:“必要性、需要;机会”。如:

  1)They're met on several occasions (他们已相遇过好几次)

  2)They are occasions when you find it difficult to say “Good-bye”。(有时候你会觉得说“再见”很难。)

  3)I don't remember I had occasion to blame him (我不记得我有责备他的必要)

  7.In the latter, we are using a Latin Derivation which has exactly the same meaning

  在前一句中用了“in the first case,” 本句中的“in the latter ”是指in the latter case .对两件事分别进行表述时,可以用in the first case, in the latter case 这一类词,条理非常清楚,也可以用the former,the latter 来表述。derivation 是derive 的名词形式。Latin derivation 意思是“拉丁语词源的词”,请看例句:

  1)These words are derived from Latin (这些词由拉丁语派生而来)

  2)The derivation of words is interesting (词的派生很有意思)

  8. The terms “popular” and “learned”, as applied to words, are not absolute definitions.本句中的term意思是“术语、名称”,如:

  1) I don't know how to put this term into Chinese (我不知道如何把这一术语译成中文)

  2) Writer is hardly the term to apply to him (“作家”这一名称很难用在他身上)

  term 还有“期限;任期;学期”的意思,如:

  1)During his 4-year term of office, he did a lot of things for the common people.(在他四年的任职期间,他为普通百姓做了不少事。)

  2) He decided to rum for a second term (他决定竞选连任。)

  3) The autumn term is coming to an end (秋学期快要结束了。)

  apply to 在句中的意思是“用于”,如:

  1)This rule applies to upper class students only (这条规则只适用于高年级学生。)

  2)I don't think what he says applies to you (我想他的话对你不适用)

  3)They are eager to apply the theory to practice (他们急切地想把这一理论用于实践)

  apply for 则是“申请”的意思,如:

  1)How many people have applied for the job?(有多少人申请了这个工作?)

  2)They applied for permission to use the tennis court (他们申请使用网球场。)

  9. Still the classification into “learned” and “popular” is convenient and sound .本句中的sound是形容词,意思是“正确的;明智的”,如:

  1)He felt so happy that he had made a sound decision.(做了正确的决定,他感到很高兴。)

  2)He was so carried away by power that he could not make any sound judgement(他被权力冲昏了头脑,无法做出任何明智的判断)

  请看下面几个句子,注意sound 在句中的意思:

  1)He is sound in body and mind (他身心健康)

  2)The house is sound .Don't hesitate to buy it (这所房了完好无损,别犹豫,买下它)

  3)The baby is having a sound sleep.(宝宝在酣睡)

  4)Father gave him a sound beating.(父亲给他一顿痛打)

  10.When we call a word “learned” we don't mean that it is used by learned persons alone, but simply that its presence in the English vocabulary is due to books and the cultivation of literature rather than to the actual needs of ordinary people

  not (that)…。but (that)。意思“不是…。而是。”如:

  1)I came here again not because I enjoy the scenery so much but because I like the people .(我又来这儿,不是因为我多喜欢这儿的景色,而是我爱这儿的人们。)

  2)By calling him Shylock, I don't mean that he is named Shylock,but that he is as miserly as Shylock.(叫他夏洛克,我不是说他的名字叫夏洛克,而是说他像夏洛克一样吝啬。)

  due to 在句中的意思是“由于”,如:

  1)His failure was due to carelessness (他的失败是由于粗心。)

  2)Due to lack of funds,they had to postpone the project.(由于缺少资金,他们不得不推迟计划)

  rather than 在本句的意思是“不是…而是……”,“与其……不如…”

  1) He is a writer than a teacher (与其说他是教师,不如说他是作家。)

  2)He lay rather than sit in the armchair (与其说他是坐在扶手椅上不如说是躺在里面。)

  本课主要词组

  1.make up

  2.be familiar with

  3.learn from

  4.belong to

  5.at large

  6.on the other hand

  7.be knows to

  8.acquaintance with

  9.in a style

  10. be of importance

  11. in the first case

  12. in the latter (case)

  13. in print

  14. apply to

  15. come up

  16. as to

  17. as a whole

  18. due to

  19. rather than

  Text B   how should you build up your vocabulary?

  短语表达

  1. build up (建立;增强;增加)

  They worked hard to build up the friendship between the people in two countries.

  Get plenty of exercise every to build up your health.

  2. come across (穿过,出现;遇到)

  They came across the street to meet me.

  A good idea came across my mind

  We are bound to come across difficulties, but we are determined to overcome them.

  3. look up (查阅)

  If there are words you don't understand, look them up in the dictionary .

  For further information about this matter, look up this book.

  4. at top speed (以最高速度)

  He drove his car at top speed

  It's dangerous to corner at top speed

  5. depend on (依靠;取决于)

  We'll depend mainly on ourselves to solve the problem.

  The accomplishment of the task depends on the solution of this major problem.

  6. make sense (有意义、讲得通)

  What he said just now didn't make any sense to me.

  This sentence doesn't make any sense.

  7. try doing sth(尝试做某事)

  You can try using another method to go it

  He tried climbing the mountain without any help.

  8. come up with (提出,想出;提供)

  He is expected to come up with some ideas after he thinks about the problem.

  The TV network will come up with better shows in the future.

  9. lead to(导致)

  Our discussions led to confusion. The earthquake led to heavy loss of life.

  10. after all (毕竟)

  Don't expect too much of him, he is, after all, a child of 10.

  We didn't finish all the work. After all, we didn't have enough hands

  11. provide with (提供)

  It is necessary that you provide them with all the equipment

  We are satisfied to be provided with these kitchen utensils

  12. begin with (以……开始)

  The first word of a sentence should begin with a capital letter .

  To begin with, we ought to know what we are here for.

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