1） Basically， there are two types of families.
2） Traditionally， all the members of an extended family lived in the same area.
1）The children stay in the nuclear family until they grow up and marry.
2） Then they form new nuclear family.
3）The members…are related by blood or by marriage.
4）They are all related， so the members of an extended family are called relatives.
5）However， with the change from an agricultural to an industrial society， many nuclear families moved away from the family home in order to find work.
6） …but most extended families do not live together.
7） Therefore we can say that the nuclear family becomes more important than the extended family as the society industrializes.
8） The nuclear family is becoming smaller as parents want fewer children， and the number of…
9） …both the father and the mother earn money for the family…
10） Most single parents find it very difficult to take care of a family alone， so they soon marry again and form remarried families.
1.At the beginning of the twentieth century， there were four powerful means of transmitting and receiving information over long distances：…
1）from beginning to end （从头到尾）
2）He has made a good beginning. （他开了个好头。）
3）I'm afraid I won't have the time to come back at the beginning of the term. （恐怕我不会有时间在开学初回来。）
1）The most convenient means of transport for people in the United States are cars.（对美国人来说最便利的交通工具是汽车。）
2）He had no means of escape other than jumping. （除了跳窗，他没有别的逃跑方法。）
3） He succeeded by means of painstaking effort. （他依靠苦干获得了成功。）
by all means 尽一切办法
live within/beyond one's means 量入（不量入）为出
a means to an end 达到目的的方法
by some means or other 用某种方法
2.By the middle of the century， both radio and television had become established means of transmitting sounds and pictures.
1） By the end of last June， they had visited 15 countries. （到去年六月底为止他们已经访问了15个国家。）
2）By the end of last year Henry had collected 1500 butterfly specimens. （到去年年底，亨利已经采集了一千五百多个蝴蝶标本。）
3）By the middle of 1999， more than 10 high buildings had been built in this area. （到1999年年中，这一地区已建造了十座高楼。）
4）By the time they got to the cinema， the film had already begun. （他们赶到电影院时，电影已经开映了。）
1）a newly established organization （新设的组织）
2） the established principles of international law （公认的国际法准则）
3）an established fact （既成事实）
4）an established custom （常规）
3.In order to transmit an event such as the Olympics Via satellite， television signals are first changed into radio waves， which are then sent from a station on earth to an orbiting satellite.
1）They will plant flowers such as roses， sunflowers， etc. （他们将栽种玫瑰、向日葵一类的花。）
2）Countries such as France， Germany， Japan and America are developed countries. （像法国、德国、日本和美国这类国家是发达国家。）
3）I felt a weight at my heart such as I had never had before. （我心中感到了一种从未有过的沉重情绪。）
4）I don't have many reference books but I will send you such as I have. （我的参考书不多，但我愿把我手头有的那些寄给你。）
which引导的是一个非限定性的定语从句。非限定性定语从句在修饰人时用who， whom或whose， 在修饰物时用which.非限定性定语从句常用逗号与主句分开。例如：
1） The students， who wanted to go outing， were disappointed when it rained. （那些学生想去郊游，天下雨了大家都感到失望。）
2）The team is headed by an American， whose wife is a Chinese. （队长是一个美国人，他的妻子是中国人。）
3）The book， which he borrowed from me yesterday， cost 1/3 of my salary. （他昨天从我这儿借走的那本书花了我三分之一的工资。）
1）The small town， where he once worked， has turned to be a modern city. （那座小城，他曾在那儿工作过，已变成一座现代化的城市了。）
2）We will put off the outing until next week， when we won't be so busy. （我们把郊游推迟至下周，那时我们不会这么忙了。）
3）They turned a deaf ear to our demands， which made all of us angry. （他们对我们的要求置之不理，这使我们大家都很生气。）
4.In theory， every person will have access to an unlimited amount of information.
in theory意为“从理论上来说；在理论上”，与其意思相反的词组是in practice （在实践中；实际上）。例如：
1）Your plan is good in theory， but does it work in practice？ （你的计划在理论上是不错的，但实行起来能行吗？）
2）His proposal worked well in practice. （他的建议很行得通。）
have access to是一个很常用的词组，意为“可接近，可进入”，to是介词，动词have也可用其他词替换。如get，gain，give，win等。在词汇部分，对access已做过讲解，在此仅举例一、二。
1）The only access to that building is blocked. （进入那座楼的唯一通道被堵住了。）
2）Students need easy access to books. （学生需要很容易地接触到图书。）
2）You can easily get access to the humorous old man.（你很容易接近那个幽默的老人。）
information是一个不可数名词，后面不可以加s，许多信息可以用a lot of information， a large amount of information， much information等表达。一条信息可以表达为a piece of information.
amount通常用在不可数名词前面，如the amount of money； a considerable amount of prejudice （相当大的偏见）。在复数名词前面可用number，如the number of mistakes； the number of students
5.The satellite also demonstrated how it could provide help to people living in isolated areas where transportation is difficult.
how引导的是一个宾语从句。我们很熟悉的是that引导的宾语从句，而且that常常可以省略。如：We must remember （that） things are easier said than done. （我们必须记住事情都是说起来容易，做起来难。）
1） He didn't tell me where the shopping center was.（他没有告诉我购物中心在哪里。）
2）Do you know what they were talking about？（你知道他们刚才在谈论什么吗？）
3）Let's see how we can solve the problem. （我们看看怎么来解决这个问题。）
4）I'm wondering if the letter is overweight.（我想知道这封信是不是超重。）
5）We must find out who did this. （我们必须弄清楚这是谁干的。）
provide是一个常用单词，通常可以有如下用法：provide sth. to/for sb.； provide sb. with sth.； provide sb. sth.；provide that…，在前一个单元中，我们已对provide一词有过讲解，再请看几个例子：
1）It is impossible for the government to provide all young people with a job. （政府不可能给所有的年轻人都提供一份工作。）
2）Can you provide 5 buses for/to the tourists？ （你们能为游客们提供五辆巴士吗？）
3）The agreement provides that the two sides shall meet once a month. （协议规定双方每月会晤一次。）
6.He was then able to follow the doctor's instructions on how to care for the patient.
1）He wrote a book on India. （他写了一本有关印度的书。）
2）He gave us a report on the international economy. （他给我们做了关于国际经济的报告。）
3）They exchanged views on questions of common concern. （他们就共同关心的问题交换了意见。）
care of 在句子中的意思是“照顾”，可用attend； look after替换。例如：
1）The whole society should care for the younger generation. （全社会都应该关怀年轻的一代。）
2）You can't really find out how to care for children from books. （你从书本上不可能真正找到照顾孩子的方法。）
care for 还可以解释为“担心”，“介意”，“愿意”，可用about替换for.
1）He doesn't care about/for his clothes. （他不讲究衣着。）
2）The old lady cared much for her daughter's safety. （老太太非常为女儿的安全担心。
3）Would you care for a cup of tea？ （来杯茶，好吗？）
4）I don't care for him to read the letter. （我不愿意让他看这封信。）
7.The most common use of telecommunication satellites， however， has been for transmitting telephone calls.however
1）It is not， however， the only answer to the question. （然而，这不是问题的唯一答案。）
2）I'd like to go and see the films， however，I don't have the time. （我很想去看电影，但我没时间。）
3）However， we still have 10minutes left. （不过，我们还有十分钟。）
4）The composition is well written， there is room for improvement， however.
5）I am sorry， but I won't be able to come this time. （很报歉，我这次不能来了。）
6）He would like to go， but he was busy. （他想去，但他太忙。）
7）It's not cheap， but it's really good. （这个不便宜，但的确很好。）
8. Telecommunication can make information from around the world available to use quickly and easily， but some people worry that this may be a risk to our privacy.
1）I am sorry those shoes are not available in your size. （很报歉，那些鞋没你的尺码。）
2）If I am not available when you call， leave a message. （你打电话来时如果我不在，请留个言。）
3）If the tickets is available， I will go to the concert. （如果能弄到票，我会去听音乐会。）
4）The ticket is available on the day of issue only. （此票仅发售当天有效。）
9.We can prevent this from happening by carefully controlling the new technology.
1）They tried every means to prevent the disease （from） spreading. （他们想方设法阻止疾病曼延。）
2）Nothing can prevent him （from） going there.（什么也阻止不了他去那儿。）
1. at the beginning of 2.means of
3. over long distance 4. by the middle of
5. such as 6. change into
7. from…to… 8. be capable of
9. not only…but… 10.in theory
11. have access to 12.amount of
13. provide…to… 14.follow sb's instructions
15. care for 16. as well as
17. at the same time 18. make…available
19. pay for 20.isolate…from…
1） …both radio and television had be come established means of transmitting sounds and pictures.
1） …radio waves， which are then sent from a station on earth to an orbiting satellite.
2） …back to earth， where another station picks them up and changes them back into television signals.
3） The combination of satellites， which transmit information， computers， which store information， and television， which displays information， will change every home into an education and entertainment center.
1） We must remember that technology alone is not the answer.
2） The satellite also demonstrated how it could provide help to people living in isolated areas…。
3. 注意such as，as well as，as的用法
1） In order to transmit an event such as the Olympics via satellite， …
2） …printed materials such as books and magazines.
3） …as well as get any information they need， …
4） As one telecommunication expert days， …
Text B What People Don't Know about Air
We couldn't have finished the work so soon without your help.
Without air， there would be no wind or clouds.
2. adv. + past participle
It is widely known that the earth goes around the sun.
It is generally believed that the earth is getting hotter.
Where there is a will， there is a way.
Where there is hope， there is life.
4. be forced to
He was forced to drop out of school.
They were forced to work 14 hours a day.
5. shelter v.& n.
Mother tried to shelter her from the blow of the tragic news.
You have to find shelter from the blazing sun.
6. protect from
It is necessary that we protect our skin from being burned by the sun.
She had his umbrella to protect her from the sun.
7. deadly adj.
They made a deadly attack on the enemy's air base.
A drop of this poison might be deadly to man.
As he braked a tire burst.
All the boys burst from their tents.
Everybody in the room burst out laughing.
The little girl burst into tears.
9. rest upon
His arm rested upon the table.
The task rested upon my shoulder.
His eyes rested upon a strange object.
10. gaze at
He was standing at the window， gazing at the street.
What are you gazing at？
He didn't go out to play until he finished his homework.
No one was to go to bed until further order.
12. in the meantime
His case won't come to court for several months， and in the meantime more than half of the people think him guilty.
At last we were released. In the meantime， our friend had informed the newspaper.
13. pay attention to
Please pay more attention to your spelling next time.
I didn't pay much attention to what he said yesterday.
14. add to
If you praise others more often， you can add great happiness to their life.
What he said just now added to my confusion.