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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(40)

2007-01-11 13:57   【 】【我要纠错

Unit20(第59讲—第61讲)

  20. probably adv. 很可能,大概,或许

  probable adj. 有可能

  probability n. 可能性

  1) He will probably refuse your help. (他很可能会拒绝你的帮助。)

  2) Their team will probably win the game. (他们队或许会赢得这场比赛。)

  3) It's probable that they will come earlier. (他们可能会早点来。)

  4) Overloading was the probable cause of the accident. (超载是事故的可能起因。)

  5) There is no probability that he will succeed. (他不可能成功。)

  6) There is every probability that she will make a fuss over the matter. (她很可能对此事大惊小怪。)

  本课简介

  在本篇课文中作者告诉我们并不只是粗野之人才犯罪,生活中看似无大碍的事情往往有违法律。现实生活是复杂的,不可能像在电影中一样,简单地把人分为好人和坏人。如同疾病可以轻至感冒重至癌症一样,犯罪行为也是有程度的轻重的。人们会对某些违法行为持宽容态度,这也许是因为人们想借此来为自己的某些违法行为开脱。另外,报刊、电视上的暴力使得人们对犯罪司空见惯。在许多情况下,人们不忍去伤害一个具体的人,而对某个不甚具体的群体或个体加以伤害却并不在意。人们对于违法行为的种种错误认识必须得以纠正。严法酷刑、警方的严加防范也许都不能使人完全免于犯罪,变得诚实,每一个人都应从自己做起,使我们的社会成为一个文明的法制社会。

  本课语言点

  1. Who do you think breaks the law in our society?

  本句中do you think是个插入语,插入语用于问句中在英语中也是十分常见的,如:

  1) What performance do you think they will put on? (你认为他们会表演什么节目?)

  2) When do you suppose they will see us? (你认为他们什么时候会见我们?)

  3) Where do you suggest we should go during the holiday? (你建议我们假期去哪儿?)

  4) How long did he say he would spend on that book? (他说他要在那本书上花多长时间?)

  5) What do you suggest he should do to make up for the loss? (为了弥补损失,你建议他该做些什么?)

  2. Has anyone you know ever driven drunk?

  本句中的drunk是个过去分词,在句子中做状语,修饰谓语动词driven,说明动作发生的情况。这类用法也十分常见,如:

  1) He turned away disappointed. (他失望地走开了。)

  2) They went home exhausted. (他们回到家里已筋疲力尽了。)

  3) We joined in the discussion unprepared. (我们毫无准备地加入了讨论。)

  Ever是个常用词,在使用该词时,常有人犯各种错误。我们来看一下ever的主要用法。

  1)表示将来或过去的任何时间。用于否定句、疑问句、条件句中:

  Have you ever been to Paris? (你去过巴黎吗?)

  Nothing ever makes him happier. (从没有什么事会使他更开心。)

  If you are ever in China, please let me know. (如果你什么时候在中国,请让我知道。)

  2) 用于表示比较的从句中:

  It is raining harder than ever. (雨越下越大了。)

  This is the highest mountain I have ever climbed. (这是我所爬过的最高的山。)

  The last I ever met him was in Nanjing. (我最后一次遇见他是在南京。)

  3) 用于特殊疑问句中,表示“究竟”,“到底”,“用任何方式”等:

  How can I ever thank you? (我究竟怎样才能感谢你?)

  Who ever can it be? (那究竟会是谁呢?)

  Why ever did you say so? (你究竟为什么这样说?)

  4)表示“总是”:“不断地”:“永远”:

  He is ever ready to help others. (他总是乐于帮助他人。)

  The little boy is ever making the same mistakes. (那个小男孩总是犯同样的错误。)

  Everybody was amazed at her ever youthful face. (每一个人都为她永远年轻的容貌感到惊奇。)

  3. Won't some of your frends admit that they have stolen an item from a store?

  请注意本句中的动词admit的用法。admit做及物动词用时,表示“承认”,“确认”,“接纳”。Admit做不及物动词用时,表示“通往”:“承认”

  1) He admitted threatening Larry. (他承认恐吓了拉里。)

  2) The young man was admitted to Harvard. (那位年轻人被哈佛录取了。)

  3) This door admits to the backyard. (这扇门通向后院。)

  4) He admitted to having broken the vase. (他承认打碎了花瓶。)

  5) The shop assistant admitted that she had taken the money. (店员承认是她拿了钱。)

  4. in case you did not know, all of these acts are against the law.本句话的意思是“如果你以前不知道,所有这些行为都是违法的。”

  in case用于引导条件状语从句和目的状语从句,在从句中,动词可以用虚拟语气,形式为should+动词原形,也可以不用虚拟语气,而用动词的一般现在时或一般过去时,如:

  1) Please remind me of it in case I (should) forget. (万一我忘了,请提醒我。)

  2) You had better leave the key at home in case I (should) think of coming back. (你最好把钥匙留在家里以免我想回来。)

  5. In the same way that diseases range from the common cold to fatal forms of cancer, crimes vary in degree.

  本句中的range from和vary在前面的课文中都已出现过,再请看几个例句。

  1) The participants range in age from 14 to 65. (参加者的年龄从14岁到65岁不等。)

  2) The flavour of food varies from place to place. (食品的风味各地都不同。)

  Crimes vary in degree in the same way that…that引导的是一个同位语从句对way作进一步的说明。in the same way意思是“以同样的方式”。

  1)We would do it in the same way that you did last time. (我们将用你上次所用的同样方法来做这件事。)

  2)The teacher talked to the boy in the same way that his teacher had talked to him years ago. (那位老师用多年前他的老师与他交谈的方式同那个男孩谈话。)

  6. In addition to breaking the law themselves, people tolerate various levels of crime.

  in addition to意思是“除…之外(还)…”, to是介词,在其后要用名词或动名词。

  1)In addition to bread, I bought you some milk. (除了面包,我还给你买了些牛奶。)

  2)In addition to holding a full-time job, he tutored some primary school children.(除了一份全日制的工作,他还辅导几个小学的孩子。)

  tolerate是个及物动词,意思是put up with (忍受、宽恕);accept (允许)

  1)They tolerate the existence of opinions contrary to their own. (他们允许相反观点的存在。)

  2)I cannot imagine how he tolerated the isolation. (我不能想象他是如何忍受这份孤独的。)

  7. We become used to seeing blood on the news on television. Become是一个连系动词,used to与连系动词或be动词连用,意思是“习惯”,used to单独用时,意思是“过去,曾经”。

  1) He is getting used to living in the south. (他正在习惯南方的生活。)

  2) I have become used to getting up early in the morning. (我已习惯早起。)

  1) He used to work for the government. (他曾为政府做事。)

  2) They used to live in the same city. (他们曾在同一座城市生活过。)

  请注意be used to中的to是个介词,后面要用名词或动名词,used to中的to是个不定式符号,后面用动词原形。

  8. When it comes to respecting the rights of a mass of anonymous individuals, we might not be so responsible.

  When it comes to相当于so far as…is concerned意思是“就…而言”,“说到…时”。To是个介词,后面用名词或动名词。

  1) He is not good at math, but when it comes to English, he is the best. (他的数学不好,要说到英语他是最好的。)

  2)When it comes to giving due respect to the old people, she feels a bit uneasy.(说到给老人应有的尊敬,她有些不自在。)

  请注意mass与mess的区别。Mass的意思是“团,块;群;大量”;mess的意思是“混乱;一团糟”。

  1) The floating masses office would prove to be a threat to the ships. (大块大块的浮冰对船只将是个威胁。)

  2) They have collected a great mass of data. (他们已收集了大量资料。)

  3) The room is a mess. (这房间又脏又乱。)

  4) They made a mess of the job. (他们把事情搞得一团糟。)

  9. While most people would not steal a wallet containing $50, they may not mind cheating on taxes, because cheating on taxes does not hurt any one person.

  本句中的while意思是although(虽然,尽管),如:

  1) While he is respected, he is not well-liked. (尽管他受人尊敬,但并不被人喜欢。)

  2) While I admit his good points, I can see his shortcomings. (尽管我承认他的优点我还是看到他的缺点的。)

  在动词mind的后面要用动名词、名词短语或从句:

  1) Mind the wet paint! (当心,油漆未干。)

  2) Mind your own business! (别管闲事!)

  3) Would you mind my smoking? (我抽烟你介意吗?)

  4) I don't mind tell him all I know. (我不介意把我所知道的都告诉他。)

  5) Mind that you don't forget the meeting. (注意别忘了开会。)

  10. Perhaps this is why someone who robs a few dollars by force from a corner store will often end up with a longer jail term than a fraud artist who swindles thousands of dollars…

  by force意思是“凭借暴力,强迫地”,如:

  1) Several youngsters robbed the bank by force. (几个年轻人以暴力抢劫银行。)

  2) The boy was robbed of his money by force. (那个男孩的钱被强抢了。)

  end up的意思是“结束,告终”,如:

  1) You will end up in prison if you go on stealing. (如果你继续偷下去,你最终会进监狱的。)

  2) Wasteful people usually end up in debt. (挥霍浪费者最后往往负债。)

  3)We ended up taking a taxi there. (我们最终乘出租车去了那儿。)

  4)The party ended up with a chorus. (晚会最后以合唱结束。)

  5)If we go on in this way, we shall end up with millions and millions of unemployed.(如果我们继续这样下去,结果会有数百万人失业。)

  term在本句中的意思是“期限”,如:

  serve one's term of service (服规定年限的兵役)

  get a term of ten years in prison (被判十年徒刑)

  during one's term of office (任职期间)

  11. The police would never be able to keep an eye on everyone, and people would still find ways to bend new laws.

  keep an eye on意思是“照看;密切注意”,如:

  1) Can you keep an eye on the baby while I go shopping? (我去购物时你能帮我照看一下孩子吗?)

  2) Parents won't be able to keep an eye on the children all the time. (父母不可能时时注意孩子们。)

  bend在本句中的意思是“任意歪曲,篡改”,如:

  1) They tried in vain to bend the rules of the game. (他们篡改比赛规则的企图没有成功。)

  2) He took advantage of his power to bend the law to suit his own purposes. (他利用权力篡改法律以适合自己的目的。)

  本课主要词组

  1. think of           2. be aware

  3. go through         4. in case

  5. divide into         6. in the same way

  7. range from         8. in addition to

  9. be tolerant of        10. become used to

  11. care about         12. prevent from

  13. when it comes to      14. by force

  15. end up          16. keep an eye on

  Text B   Marriage in iran and America:a study in contrasts

  短语表达

  I. Phrases and expressions

  1.compare with

  Compared with the products of their factory, ours are superior in quality.

  Compared with many other women in her days, she was really lucky.

  2. for the purpose of

  He cheated on the exam for the purpose of getting a high score.

  He told a lie for the purpose of avoiding a possible punishment.

  3. a number of

  A number of local residents have moved to a new residential area.

  A number of miners who had been trapped were saved.

  4. be willing to

  He was willing to lend us a helping hand when we were in need.

  The man was not willing to admit that he was wrong.

  5. be married to

  She was married to a handsome young man from Germany.

  The girl stood up and said she was willing to be married to the poor artist.

  6. be involved in

  No one wanted to be involved in this matter.

  Mr. Li didn't expect that his son could be involved in this robbery.

  7. respond to

  How did the audience respond to your speech?

  He responded to his wife's complaints by turning a deaf ear to her.

  8. be allowed to

  He is allowed to read in prison.

  The boy is not allowed to play video games.

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