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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(48)

2007-01-11 14:21   【 】【我要纠错

Unit24(第71讲—第73讲)

  2. They are being cleared for valuable timber and other resources to speed up the economic growth of the nations in which they are located.

  本句中的clear用作动词,意思是remove (清除),如:

  1) Brazil's forests were being cleared at the rate of almost 7,000 square miles a year.(巴西的森林以每年近7,000平方英里的速度被清除。)

  2)The children were helping me clear weeds from the garden. (孩子们在帮助我清除花园里的杂草。)

  speed up是个常用短语,意思是increase the speed

  1)Tom speeded up and overtook his classmates. (汤姆加快了速度,赶上他的同学们。)

  注意speed用在词组动词中时,其过去式和过去分词为speeded, 其他情况下,其过去式和过去分词为sped.

  2) Africa's population growth speeded up. (非洲的人口增长加速。)

  3) Bad housing and poverty speed up the breakdown of family life. (恶劣的住房条件和贫困加快了家庭的破裂。)

  表示“坐落于某地”时,locate常用在被动语态中,be located.in which they are located中的they指rainforests, which指nations.

  1) The factory is located in the suburb. (那家工厂坐落于郊区。)

  2) The hospital is located in the center of the city. (医院坐落于市中心。)

  3. According to many scientists, the burning of rainforests is also directly contributing to the so-called greenhouse effect.

  contribute to在本句中的意思是help to bring about (促战,造成)。如:

  1) Your suggestion will contribute to solving the problem. (你的建议将有助于解决这个问题。)

  2)Carelessness contributed to his errors. (粗心大意造成了他的错误。)

  so-called用作形容词,意思是“所谓的”。如:

  1) He was deceived by his so-called friend. (他被所谓的朋友骗了。)

  2) The so-called Christian even showed no love to his own children. (这个所谓的基督徒连对自己的孩子都没有爱心。)

  effect在句中用作名词,意思是“效果,效应”,在第三单元中我们对名词effect和动词affect做过详细讲解,再请看几个例句。

  1) The sound effect of this movie is great. (这部电影的音响效果很棒。)

  2) Excessive smoking will have a bad effect on your health. (吸烟过多将会给你的身体带来不良影响。)

  3) Too much rainfall affected the harvest. (过多的雨水影响了收成。)

  4)I hope what I have said won't affect your decision. (希望我的话不会影响你的决定。)

  4. It is a medicine chest of unlimited potential.

  chest可以指胸腔或柜子、箱子,medicine chest是“药箱”的意思。

  potential在句中用作名词,意思是“潜力”,potential也可用作形容词,意思是“潜在的”。

  1) They are determined to tap their potential to the full. (他们决心充分挖掘自己的潜力。)

  2) The aim of this advertisement is to attract potential customers. (这则广告的目标是吸引潜在的顾客。)

  3) You have to know more about the potential demand of the market.(你得对市场上可能达到的需求量有更多的了解。)

  5. In today's pharmaceutical market 15 of the 125 drugs derived from plants were discovered in the rainforest. derived from plants是现在分词短语做定语,相当于被动语态的定语从句。如:

  1) The beer bought from the supermarket is very light. (在超市买的那啤酒口味很淡。)

  2) The candy made from cactus tastes strange. (用仙人掌做的糖果味道很怪。)

  15 of the 125意思是125中的15.再如two of the three (三个中的两个)

  derive from意思是get from, obtain from, 如:

  1) Much of his knowledge is derived from books. (他的许多知识得自书本。)

  2) He derived his stories from his experiences in the countryside. (他的故事来自于他在农村的经历。)

  6. Rare birds and animals that cannot be found anywhere else in the world have been disappearing at the rate of one a year since the turn of the century.

  句中的else是形容词,常接在不定代词的后面,表示“其他的,别的”,如:

  1) Is there anything else I can do for you?(我还能为你做些别的事吗?)

  2) Did anybody else know this? (有其他人知道这件事吗?)

  3) He didn't go anywhere else. (他没去其他地方。)

  one a year意思是“每年一种”。这种表达方式在英语中很常用,如:

  1) Take the medicine three times a day. (每日三次服这种药。)

  2) They met three times a week. (他们每周见三次。)

  3) He finishes 5 books a month. (他一个月读完五本书。)

  当时间状语用since引导时,句子中的时态常用完成时。如:

  1) He has been living here since he came to Nanjing 5 years ago. (自从他五年前来到南京,他就一直住在这儿。)

  2) They haven't seen each other since last May. (自去年五月起,他们一直没见过面。)

  turn在句中做名词,意思是“转折点”。since the turn of the century意思是“自本世纪初(或上世纪末)。”

  1) He hasn't written home since the turn of the year. (自去年底以来他还未给家里写过信。)

  2) At the turn of the two centuries, they had many hearty wishes for their family.(在两个世纪交替之时,他们对家人有许多衷心的祝愿。)

  7. In the face of all these facts, it seems senseless for countries to continue destroying their rainforests.

  介词短语in the face of 意思是“面对”。如:

  1) They didn't give up in the face of adversity. (面对逆境,他们没有放弃。)

  1)He kept his head in the face of flattery. (面对奉承,他保持镇静。)

  it seems senseless for sb. to do sth. (对于某人来说做某事是愚蠢的)

  it是形式主语,动词不定式真正的主语。这种句式我们已多次碰到过。如:

  1) It is important for us to get into contact with them as soon as possible.(我们尽快与他们取得联系是很重要的。)

  2) It seems useless for you to argue further with him. (你再跟他争辩下去似乎是毫无意义的。)

  在动词continue的后面既可以用动词不定式也可以用动名词,意思都是“不间断地做某事”。如:

  1) It is necessary for us to continue to learn things in life. (我们在生活中不断学习是必要的。)

  2) He continued doing his homework. (他继续做家庭作业。)

  8. …the government often have no choice but to turn a blind eye.

  have no choice but to do sth. (别无选择,只能…),如:

  1) I had no choice but to take the last train to go home. (我别无选择,只能乘末班火车回家。)

  2)They had no choice but to accept the term. (他们别无选择,只能接受这个条件。)

  turn a blind eye (to sth.) (对…视而不见),类似的表达不有turn a deaf ear to sth.,如:

  1)He turned a blind eye to the messy room (他对凌乱的房间视而不见。)

  2)The manager turned a deaf ear to the customers' complaints about the poor service.(顾客报怨服务太差,经理对此置若罔闻。)

  9. …which they badly need to pay off their foreign debts and purchase foreign equipment and other goods.

  badly在本句中用作副词,意思是extremely.如:

  1) I am badly in need of advice. (我急需建议。)

  2) We need the money badly. (我们非常需要这笔钱。)

  pay off的意思是pay all that is owed (清偿)。如:

  1) It book him 6 years to pay off the debt.(他花了六年时间才还清那笔债。)

  2) He won't be able to pay off a home all his life. (他一辈子也不能付清购买住房所下的钱。)

  equipment是不可数名词,不可在其后加s.

  goods是复数名词,意思是“商品;货物”。

  10. …how to select trees worth exporting and to cut only those trees down while leaving the rest, so that the basic make up of the forest would not be disturbed.

  形容词worth后面通常接动名词或名词。如:

  1) This book is worth reading. (这本书值得一读。)

  2) The equipment is worth 10,000 dollars. (这台设备值一万美元。)

  请注意区别worth,worthy和worthwhile:

  1) be worth + n. = be worthy of + n.

  This matter is worth consideration.

  This matter is worthy of consideration.

  2) be worth doing = be worthy   of being done

  to be done

  This matter is worth considering.

  This matter is worthy of being considered.

  to be considered.

  3) It is worthwhile doing sth.

  to do sth.

  It is worthwhile to consider the matter.

  considering the matter.

  make-up在句中用作名词,意思是“组成,构造”。如:

  1) He didn't know the make-up of the mineral. (他不知道这种矿物质的构成。)

  2) The make-up of Chinese characters is hard for many foreigners. (对许多外国人来说汉字的构造很难。)

  make-up还可以表示“化妆”、“虚构”、“补考”。

  11. Last but not least, …

  本句的意思是the last point but not the least important one (最后一点,但并不是最不重要的点。)

  本课主要短语及表达

  1. at such a rate

  2. speed up

  3. be located

  4. be allowed to

  5. according to

  6. contribute to

  7. derive from

  8. continue doing

  9. in the face of

  10. continue doing

  11. stop sb. from doing sth.

  12. cut down

  13. turn a blind eye

  14. pay off

  15. regard…as

  16. make a living

  17. be worth doing

  18. make…into…

  19. on the spot

  20. in addition to

  Text B    life in the tundra

  短语表达

  1. be known as

  China is known as one of the four ancient civilizations.

  She is known as a great singer.

  2. adapt to

  It is hard for him to adapt to the food and climate there.

  He is well adapted to the harsh environment.

  3. threat to

  Heart diseases are major threats to life.

  Darkness is a threat to him.

  4. to some degree

  I agree with you to some degree.

  To some degree he hated his work.

  5. as if by magic

  His face turned green as if by magic.

  The sun appeared after the rain as if by magic.

  6. give birth to

  Mrs. Brown gave birth to a baby girl last week.

  The summer sun gives birth to many species of arctic plants.

  7. in search of

  The whole family was out in search of the lost pet dog.

  All his life he has been in search of the meaning of life.

  8. migrate to

  Many birds migrate to the south in winter.

  He migrated from Canada to the United States when he was 30.

  9. in turn

  We drove to the beach last week. The two of us took the wheel in turn.

  Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice.

  10. result in

  His carelessness resulted in the accident.

  Deforestation will result in disastrous ecological changes.

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