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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(34)

2007-01-11 13:37   【 】【我要纠错

Unit17(第50讲—第52讲)

  19.eventually adv. 终于,最终

  eventual adj. 最后的,结果的

  1)He eventually realized that he was wrong.(他终于意识到自己错了。)

  2)They eventually took over the company.(他们终于接管了那家公司。)

  3)His mistake led to his eventual dismissal.(他的错误致使他最终被解雇。)

  4)He is sure about his eventual success.(他肯定自己最终会成功。)

  20.confirm v. 证实,肯定;批准,确认

  1)You need to confirm your reservations 48 hours in advance.(你需要提前48小时确定预订。)

  2)The rumor is confirmed.(谣传被证实了。)

  3)Her remarks confirmed me in my belief that the young man was innocent.

  (她的话使我进一步认定那个年轻男子是清白的。)

  4)The United Nations has confirmed the treaty.(联合国已批准了这项条约。)

  本课简介

  越来越多的美国人会在一生中一次或多次地经历惊吓症。惊吓症的症状与心脏病的症状极其相似,于是得了惊吓症的人往往误认为自己得了心脏病。那么惊吓症与心脏病如何区别?心脏病的症状只是气急和疼痛,而惊吓症则会有如下的表现:1)对一些极寻常的情况惊恐不安;2)气急、胸痛。心跳加快,突然发抖,周围的人或物变得虚幻;3)恐惧死亡或疯狂;4)发病年龄在20-30岁;5)女性多于男性; 6)症状多样化;7)大量饮酒和使用药物的人多发。惊吓症虽然不会对人的生命产生直接危害,但是专家们建议最好向医生咨询,如果确实患有惊吓症,则需要心理和药物治疗。

  本课主要语言点

  1.…suddenly had severe pains in her chest accompanied by shortness of breath.

  哪个部位的疼痛,通常用pain in…来表示,比如:a pain in the abdomen(腹部疼痛),a pain in the chest(胸部疼痛)。当然我们也可以用abdomen pain,chest pain 来表达。而a pain in the neck 则是指“令人讨厌或恼火的人或事”)。

  pain是个常用词,可以做名词用也可以做动词用。

  1)No pains, no gains.(不劳则无获。)

  2)Father went to great pains to stress the importance of independence.(父亲煞费苦心地强调独立的重要性。)

  3)The death of his daughter gave the old man much pain. (女儿的去世令那位老人极为悲痛。)

  4)My left leg is paining.(我的左腿痛。)

  5)It pains her to see him thinner from illness.(看到他因病日渐消瘦,她心里很难过。)

  be accompanied by 意为“由…伴随”;如:

  1) He burst into the room accompanied by his body guards.(他在保镖的伴随下闯进屋里。)

  2) Pneumonia is often accompanied by fever and cough. (肺炎常常伴有发烧和咳嗽。)

  2.Her husband immediately rushed Anne to a nearby hospital where her pains were diagnosed as having been caused by panic, and not a heart attack.

  请注意“rush”在本句中的用法。在此作及物动词用。如:

  1)He rushed the tourists round the sights. (他带着游客们匆匆参观了各处名胜。)

  2)The ambulance rushed him to a hospital.(救护车火速送他进医院。)

  3)Let me think about it and don't rush me.(让我把这件事想一下,别催我。)

  在大多数情况下rush作不及物动词和名词用。如:

  1)The rain rushed against the house.(暴雨冲打着屋子。)

  2)The reporters are rushing to the scene.(记者们正赶往现场。)

  3)Blood rushed to his face when the young man offered to buy him a pudding.(当那位年轻人提出给他买个蛋糕时,血涌上了他的脸。)

  4) There is no rush.(不用急急忙忙的。)

  5)She felt a sudden rush of dizziness.(她感到一阵眩晕。)

  6) He went to America during the Californian gold rush.(他在加利福尼亚淘金热时去了美国。)

  nearby 可以做形容词用,也可以做副词用,在本句中用作形容词,修饰其后的名词hospital.

  diagnose…as… 把…诊断为…,如:

  1)His failure was diagnosed as being caused by carelessness.(他的失败被判定为由粗心所致。)

  2)The doctor diagnosed her illness as diabetes.(医生诊断她的病是糖尿病。)

  因为句子中的as是介词,在介词后要用动名词,又由于需用被动语态,所以出现了having been caused by的形式。

  3.More and more Americans nowadays are having panic attacks like the one experienced by Anne Peters.

  本句中的like是一个出现频率很高的词,在下列例句中,like用作介词:

  1)She is like a bird.(如像鸟儿一样。)

  2)It was not like him to forget her birthday.(他才不会把她的生日忘记呢。)

  3)I feel like sleeping.(我想睡觉。)

  4)It looks like a clear day tomorrow. (明天看来会是晴天。)

  5)He acts like a grown up person.(他的举止行动像成人。)

  experienced by Anne Peters 在句子中做定语,修饰the one .

  1)I don't like the one chosen by him.(我不喜欢他选择的那一个。)

  2)The camera bought by Xiao Li is stolen.(小李买的那个相机被偷了。)

  4.The symptoms of panic attacks bear such remarkable similarity to those of heart attacks that many victims believe that they are indeed having a heart attack.

  通常我们用so…that…。 表示“如此……以致于……” .本句中的such ,是因为so只能用来修饰形容词和副词,而名词(名词短语)则要用 such 来修饰,如:

  1)He ran so fast that no one could catch up with him.(他跑得这样快,没人能赶上他。)

  2)This book is so interesting that he doesn't want to put is down.(这本书太有意思了,他都不想把书放下。)

  3)It was such a sunny day that he wanted to go out to enjoy the warm sunshine.(天气如此睛朗,他想出去享受这温暖的阳光。)

  在形容词similar的后面通常用介词 to,使用名词 similarity 时,其后也用 to.如:

  1)My problems are similar to yours.(我的问题与你的类似。)

  2)The two cats are similar to each other in appearance and size.(这两只猫的模样和大小相仿。)

  3)Liverpool has a certain similarity to Marseilles.(利物浦和马赛有某种相像。)

  句子中的those 代指symptoms.

  5.A person seized by a panic attack may show all or as few as four of these symptoms.

  请注意本句中seize这个动词的词意及用法。

  1)抓住;抓住(时机等),利用

  The police seized him by the collar.(警察抓住了他的衣领。)

  Seizing the bowl, he ran off through the door.(他抓起碗冲出门去。)

  He seized the chance to study abroad.(他抓住了那次去国外学习的机会。)

  2) 逮捕

  He was seized outside the city.(他在市郊被捕获。)

  The escaped prisoner was seized on Sunday.(逃犯于周日被抓获。)

  3) (常用被动语态)(疾病)侵袭;(情绪)支配

  The old man was seized by a stroke.(那位老人中风了。)

  She was seized with jealousy.(她妒火中烧。)

  Panic seized the people in the cave.(洞里的人们惊慌失措。)

  “seize”也可用不及物动词,如:

  1)He would seize on (upon) any excuse to justify himself.(他会利用一切借口为自己辩解。)

  2)He was determined to seize on (upon) the opportunity to leave his employer a good impression.(他决心抓住这个机会给他的雇主留下好印象。)

  6.There has been a lot of explanations as to the causes of panic attacks.

  本句中的as to 意思是about(关于),如:

  1)John has been given no directions as to what to write. (没人对约翰说明该写什么。)

  2)I have no doubt as to his honesty.(对他的诚实,我毫无疑问。)

  3)I was asked my opinion as to why he refused our help.(对他为什么拒绝我们的帮助,我被要求发现见解。)

  7.It is reported that there are at least three signs that indicate a person is suffering from a panic attack rather than a heart attack.

  It + be + -ed 分词 +that从句……that引导的是一个主语从句, it 做形式主语放在句首。如:

  1)It is often stated that Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564.(人们常说莎士比亚生于1564年4月23日。)

  2)It is believed that he has told the truth.(人们相信他说了实话。)

  3)It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.(众所周知,光以直线运行。)

  rather than在本句中的意思是“不是……而是……”,如:

  1)He lay rather than sat in his armchair.(他躺在扶手椅里而不是坐在里面。)

  2)The freckles over her face were an added attraction rather than otherwise.(她脸上的雀斑不但无损容貌反而令她更动人。)

  8.Dr. Crocker's advice to any person who thinks he is suffering from a panic attack is to consult a doctor for a medical examination to rule out the possibilities of physical illness first.

  to在本句中用作介词,advice to sb. 意为“给某人的劝告”,如:

  1) My advice to you is that you should be more polite to other people.(我对你的劝告是你应该对别人更礼貌一些。)

  2) The teacher's advice to me was to study harder.(老师劝我学习更努力。)

  consult在本句中的意思是“请教,咨询”,如:

  1) He consulted the doctor about his illness.(他找那位医生看病。)

  2) Your baby is losing weight, you should consult your doctor promptly.(你的孩子体重在下降,你应该立即去向医生咨询。)

  rule out的意思是“排除”,如:

  1) Police have ruled out murder but are still holding several people for questioning.(警方排除他杀的可能,但仍留了一些人审问。

  2) He ruled out the possibility that he could fight again.(他排除了再度出战的可能性。)

  本课主要词组

  1. be accompanied by

  2. shortness of

  3. rush sb. to (a place)

  4. be caused by

  5. suffer from

  6. bear similarity to

  7. most of all

  8. be seized by

  9. as to

  10. rather than

  11. be isolated from

  12. rule out

  13. at least

  14. as yet

  15. be likely to

  16. all the same

  Text B  Sleepwalking——Fact or Fancy?

  短语表达

  1.  search for

  All his life he has been searching for the meaning of life.

  The police are searching for the escaped prisoner in the wood.

  2.  in the middle

  Don't disturb him, he is in the middle of a meeting.

  He is standing in the middle of the room enraged.

  3.  border on

  The American people's respect for President Lincoln borders on worship.

  China borders on Mongolia in the north.

  4.  put…on record

  Students' performance at school is usually put on record.

  The criminal cases are all put on record.

  5.  wake up

  He had a lot of difficulty waking up so early in the morning.

  The noise outside woke him up.

  6.  take measures

  Effective measures have to be taken to control pollution.

  They have taken some measures to rid the boy of his bad habit.

  7.  outgrow

  The boy will outgrow the jacket in a year.

  I believe he will outgrow the habit when he is older.

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