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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(42)

2007-01-11 14:03   【 】【我要纠错

Unit21(第62讲—第64讲)

  18. systematically adv. 有系统地;有计划地

  systematic adj. 有系统的,有条理的

  1) They did everything systematically. (他们有条不紊地做了一切。)

  2) Do you have a systematic plan for the project? (对于这项工程你们有系统计划吗?)

  3) These skills are developed in a systematic way. (这些技能是有计划地发展的。)

  本课简介

  本文作者指出生活中有许多不确定的事物,这种种的不确定支配着我们的语言。我们的日常话语中很多probably,many,soon,great,little一类的词。不确定的语言主要有三类。一是如probably,possibly,surely一类词,代表了一种主观的可能,是可定量的。二是如many,often,soon一类词,这类词虽可定量,但他们表示的是一个知之不确的数量。三是如fat,rich,drunk一类词,这类词不可能转化为任何可接受的数目,因为不同的人赋予它们不同的价值观。

  在特定的上下文中,这些词是有什么意义?与使用者的年龄有何关联?作者告诉我们三个实验结果。一,数量取决于所涉及的事物;二,所涉及的事物总量的大小会影响到一种说法被赋予的数值。三,年龄的影响极为明显。

  本课主要语言点

  1. Uncertainty spreads through our lives so thoroughly that it dominates our language.

  动词spread的过去式和过去分词与动词原形是一样的。本句中的spread意思是becomes known or shared by more and more people (散布),如:

  1) News of the air crash spread quickly. (飞机坠毁的消息很快传播开了。)

  2) He is making a lecture tour to spread his political influence. (他在作巡回演讲以扩大自己的政治影响。)

  3) People seem to love spreading gossip. (人们似乎爱传闲话。)

  spread这个词还可以做名词用,再请看几个例子,注意spread的意思和词类:

  1)A scene of property spreads out before us. (一幅欣欣向荣的景象展现在我们面前。)

  2) The spread of education benefits many girls. (教育的普及使许多女孩得益。)

  3)He was spreading peanut butter on bread. (他正往面包上涂花生酱。)

  4) Many people died as a result of the spread of fire. (火势蔓延致使多人丧生。)

  5)You many consider spreading the work load. (你可以考虑把工作分摊一下。)

  lives是life的复数形式。life做可数名词用时,意思是“生命”,“一生,寿命”,如:

  1)He nearly lost his life. (他几乎送了命。)

  2) Fourteen children lost their lives in the fire. (十四个孩子在火中丧生。)

  3) People spend their lives worrying about wealth and health. (人们一生都在为金钱和健康担忧。)

  2. Our everyday speech is made up in large part of words…

  in part意为“在某种程度上;部分地”;in large part则表示“很大部分”,如:

  1) Some forms of mental illness are caused in part by lack of communication. (有些形式的精神疾病部分是由于缺少交流引起的。)

  2) The driver should in large part be responsible for the accident. (司机应为这起事故负大部分责任。)

  Be made up of 意思是“由…组成”,如:

  1) The medical team is made up of 4 doctors and 2 nurses. (那个医疗队由4名医生和2名护士组成。)

  2) His class is made up of 50 students. (他的班级由50名学生组成。)

  3. Atomic war is likely to destroy forever the nation that wages it.

  在前面我们已多次碰到be likely to, 我们提到过be likely的主语可以是it,也可以是其他名词,如:

  1) It is likely that he will be here in 30 minutes. (他过30分钟可能会到这儿。)

  2) The disease is likely to spread. (这种疾病可能会传播。)

  It is likely that the disease will spread.

  forever是副词,意思是for good, completely (永远地),如:

  They will vanish forever into the twilight. (他们将永远消失在黄昏里。)

  forever与进行时态连用,表示“老是,不断”,如:

  1)She is forever asking to borrow something. (她没完没了地向人借东西。)

  2) The teacher was forever spotting trivial errors in their calculations. (老师总是在他们的计算中发现错误。)

  that wages it是定语从句,修饰nation.Wage在本句中用作动词,意思是start(发起,开展),如:They waged a campaign against nuclear tests. (他们开展了反核试验运动。)

  4. Lacking any standard for estimating the probability, we are left with the judgment of the editorial writer.

  句中的lack 是一个及物动词,意思是“缺乏”,lack也可用作不及物动词和名词,请看下面的例句,注意lack的用法。

  1)He wasn't a stern man, in spite of his lack of humor. (尽管他缺少幽默感,但他不是一个苛刻的人。)

  2) Lack of funding is making our job more difficult. (资金短缺使我们的工作更加困难。)

  3) There was no lack of hands. (人手并不缺。)

  4) He is lacking in responsibility. (他不够负责。)

  5) Your statement lacks detail. (你的叙述不够详尽具体。)

  leave sth. with sb. 意思是“把…留给某人”,如:

  1) Leave your telephone number with the secretary. (把你的电话号码留给秘书。)

  2) He left his bicycle with his brother when he went on holiday. (他去度假时,把自行车放在他弟弟那儿。)

  5. Indeed, it has a value just because it allows us to express judgments when a precise quantitative statement is out of the question.

  allow sb. to do sth. 意思是“允许某人做某事”,如:

  1)They were allowed to stay there longer. (他们被允许在那儿时间呆长点。)

  2) He allowed me to take two books. (他允许我拿两本书。)

  请注意区别out of the question和out of question:

  out of the question意为“不可能的”,“办不到的”。如:

  1) I haven't finished my homework yet, going shopping now is out of the question.(我还没做完作业,现在去购物是不可能的。)

  2) Going swimming at this time of the year is out of the question. (一年中这个时候游泳是不可能的。)

  out of question意为“毫无疑问”。如:

  1)Getting some help from her is out of question. (得到她的帮助不成问题。)

  2)It is out of question to get the job. (得到那份工作没问题。)

  6. …which are also quantifiable but denote not so much a condition of certainty as a quantity imprecisely known;

  not so much…as…意思是“与其说…不如说…”。如:

  1)He is not so much a reporter as a writer. (与其说他是一个记者,还不如说他是个作家。)

  2)His achievement was made not so much because of luck as because of hard work.(他取得的成就与其说是由于运气,不如说是由于努力。)

  7. …which can not be reduced to any accepted number because they are given different values by different people.

  reduce的意思是make sth. smaller in size or amount or less in degree (减少,减轻),如:

  1) They have promised to reduce the cost. (他们已经答应降低成本。)

  2)The workforce would have to be reduced by 50%. (劳动力将减少百分之五十。)

  reduce sb. to a particular state指处于(某种状态);使艰难(处境),用被动语态时,表示“迫使”。如:

  1) He was reduced to begging in the old days. (在旧社会他被逼得讨饭。)

  2) The old lady was reduced to despair. (老太太陷入了绝望。)

  在课文中的这个句子里,be reduced to意思是“使化为,使变为”,如:

  1) This kind of analysis reduce the problem to its simplest form. (这种分析方法使问题变得最为简单。)

  2) He had always wanted to reduce his thoughts to writing. (他一直想把自己的思想变成文字。)

  8. We have been trying to pin down by experiments what people mean by these expressions in specific contexts,…

  pin作名词用时指“别针,大头针”,如a safety pin (安全别针);作动词用时指“别住”:“使不能行动”,pin down的意思是“准确说明”,“牵制”。如:

  1) He pinned a badge on his jacket. (他在外套上别了一枚徽章。)

  2) She pinned the papers together before giving them to the manager. (把文件给经理前,她用针把它们别好。)

  3) They pinned him down to a promise. (他们迫使他履行诺言。)

  4) We are trying to pin down his speech. (我们正努力准确说明他的讲话。)

  两个by在句中都是介词,表示“靠,用,通过”,如:

  1) What do you mean by that? (你这样讲是什么意思?)

  2) He put the young man in an awkward situation by asking him some personal questions.(他通过问一些私人性问题使那个年轻人陷入尴尬。)

  9. …we find that the number depends of course on the items involved.

  …the size of the population of items influences the value assigned to an expression.

  上面两句中的过去分词involved和assigned其前都省去了that (which) are (is),做定语修饰items和value.

  本课主要短语

  1. be made up of

  2. in part

  3. be likely to

  4. be left with

  5. allow sb. to do sth.

  6. out of the question

  7. not so much…as…

  8. be reduced to

  9. pin down

  10. compare with

  11. be certain to

  12. in place of

  Text B    it never rains but it pours!

  谚语

  1. There is no smoke without fire.

  2. Don't wash your dirty linen in the public.

  3. It's no use crying over spilt milk.

  4. Make the best out of a bad job.

  5. It never rains but it pours.

  6. Every dog is allowed one bite.

  7. One man's meat is another man's poison.

  8. Let sleeping dogs lie.

  9. He who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount.

  10. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

  11. There is no such thing as a free lunch.

  短语表达

  1.  relevance to / be relevant to

  What he said had no relevance to the present question.

  They could not forward any relevant proof.

  2.  believe in

  I believe him but I don't believe in him.

  He believes in Christianity.

  3.  pass on to

  Would you please pass this message on to Xiao Li?

  Thank you for passing the news on to me.

  4.  in the form of

  He showed his appreciation to her in the form of a letter of hanks.

  They gave the children a lot of help in the form of books.

  5.  a reminder of

  This proverb can be used as a reminder of the correct way to behave.

  This picture is a reminder of my past.

  6.  in times of

  They are said to be more intelligent in times of difficulties.

  This could be a comfort in times of trouble.

  7.  be native to

  Rice is believed to be native to China.

  This saying is native to the American Indians.

  8.  go wrong

  When anything goes wrong with his car he will hasten to his auto repairman.

  I don't know what has gone wrong with my computer.

  9.  be based on

  His comments are based on facts.

  This film is based on the life story of a general.

  10.  date back to

  This invention can be dated back to the Han Dynasty.

  This old law dated back to the 17th century.

  11.  pay compensation to

  The insurance company would pay compensation to the victims.

  The supermarket refused to pay any compensation to the customer.

  12.  be harmful to

  Excessive smoking is harmful to your health.

  TV violence is harmful to children.

  13.  come into contact with

  China came into more contact with the outside world in the late 1980s.

  We learned more as we came into contact with them.

  14.  borrow from

  He borrowed a lot of money from his friends.

  Some of the English words are borrowed from other languages.

  15.  start on

  He started on his journey last week.

  You have to get well prepared if you want to start on a dangerous enterprise.

  16.  in return

  They gave you so much help, what are you going to do in return?

  I didn't expect any favor from you in return.

  17.  be reluctant to

  He is reluctant to make any comment on this issue.

  The boy was reluctant to tell his father the truth.

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