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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(46)

2007-01-11 14:14   【 】【我要纠错

Unit23(第68讲—第70讲)

  2. It would almost certainly refer to means of communication that involve the use of words.

  在第四单元中我们已经学过refer to (提到,涉及)这个短语。再请看几个例句。

  1)In his speech he referred to the difficulties they had overcome. (在发言中,他提到了他们所克服的困难。)

  2)What he said at the meeting doesn't refer to you. (他在会上所说的不是指你。)

  在第二单元和第二十二单元中,我们已学过动词involve和名词involvement,再请看下面的例句,

  注意involve在本课文中的意思和用法。

  1)If I were you,I wouldn't get myself involved in this problem. (如果我是你,我不会让自己卷进这个问题中。)

  2)She didn't want to be involved in trouble. (她不想卷入纠纷。)

  以上两例句中,involve都是“卷入,陷入,牵涉”的意思。

  3)To accept the job would involve my living in London. (若接受这份工作,我必须得住在伦敦。)

  4)Building this road will involve the construction of some tunnels. (造这条路包括建造一些隧洞。)

  在例句3)和4)中,involve的意思是“必须包括某种结果”。在involve后面必须用名词或者动名词。

  3. NVC for short.

  这是一个省略句,补充完整应该是Non-verbal communication is called NVC for short.

  (非语言交际被简称为/缩写为NVC.)

  for short是个常用短语,意思是“简称;缩写”。如:

  1)Unidentified flying object is called UFO for short. (不明飞行物被简称为UFO)

  2)People's Republic of China is ften written as P.R.C. for short. (中华人民共和国常被缩写为P.R.C.)

  4. …the average European will smile and nod approval.

  在第三单元中我们已经学过average这个词。average可以做形容词、名词和动词用。如:

  1)The average driver thinks that accidents only happen to other people.(司机一般都认为事故只发生在其他人身人。)

  2) We averaged 70 miles an hour. (我们平均每小时行70公里。)

  3)His performance is above the average. (他的成绩在一般水平之上。)

  在本课文的这个句子中,average做形容词用,意思是“普通的”。

  nod可以用作及物动词、不及物动词和名词。如:

  1)They nodded agreement. (他们点头表示同意。)

  2)He nodded me a welcome when I went in. (我进去时,他向我点头表示欢迎。)

  3)I nodded to him in greeting. (我向他点头打招呼。)

  4)Father nodded in approval when he listened. (父亲听着时点头表示赞同。)

  5)Homer sometimes nods. (智者千虑,必有一失。)

  6)He didn't give our plan the nod. (他没有同意我们的计划。)

  5. …because body language is very much tied to culture…

  本句中的be tied to sth.意思是be related to, have to do with (与…有关),如:

  1)Many diseases are tied to smoking. (许多疾病与吸烟有关。)

  2) The misunderstanding was tied to cultural differences. (这个误会与文化差异有关。)

  be tied to 也可以表示be restricted by (受…约束),如:

  1)She was tied to housework and wouldn't be able to come. (她被家务事束缚,无法前来。)

  2)If you have small children, you will be tied to your home. (如果你有小孩子,你就会被束缚在家了。)

  6. Quite a lot of work is now being done on the subject of NVC, which is obviously important, for instance, to managers, who have to deal every day with their staff, and have to understand what other people are feeling if they are to create good working conditions.

  本句中,which引导非限定性定语从句,修饰NVC;who引导的也是非限定性定语从句,修饰managers;what引导的是宾语从句,做understand的宾语。

  一般说来,用which引导非限定性定语从句,修饰表物的先地词;用who引导的非限定性定语从句则修饰表人的先行词;也可用关系副词where或when引导非限定性定语从句。非限定性定语从句常用逗号与主句分开,而且引导从句的关系代词which,that和关系副词where, when不能省略。

  1)I want to buy the house, which has a garden. (我想买那座房子,它有一个花园。)

  2) The students, who wanted to go out on a picnic, were disappointed when it rained.(学生们想出去野餐,天下雨了大家都感到失望。)

  3)The football match will be put off till next week, when we can get everything ready.(足球赛将推迟到下周,那时我们能把一切准备就绪。)

  4)The place, where we stayed, has changed so much. (那个地方我们住过,那儿的变化很大。)

  deal with的意思是“对付,打交道”。如:

  1)He is not easy to deal with. (他不容易打交道。)

  2)I don't know how to deal with this situation. (我不知道如何应付这种局面。)

  7. I expect you understand all those, except perhaps “proximity”。 动词expect通常有如下用法:

  1)except + 宾语(名词或代词)

  I am expecting a letter. (我在等信。)

  The teacher is expecting you. (老师在等你。)

  2) expect +(宾语)+ 动词不定式

  I expect to be back next week. (我预计下周回来。)

  I didn't expect him to come so early. (我没料到他会来得这么早。)

  3) expect + that从句

  He didn't expect that the work could be so difficult. (他没料到这工作会如此艰难。)

  They expected that the war would end soon.(他们期望战争早日结束。)

  在本课文的句子中,except后面跟的是省略了that的宾语从句。

  8. A person who holds a hand over his mouth when he is talking is signaling that he is lacking in confidence.

  在第十六单元中我们学过lack这个词。lack可以用作动词或名词,lacking用作形容词。lack和lacking用法如下:

  1)lack用作名词:(for) lack of (因)缺乏

  He showed a complete lack of confidence. (他显得毫无信心。)

  The case was dismissed for lack of evidence. (因缺乏证据,那个案子被驳回了。)

  2)lack用作及物动词:lack sth

  Your article lacks concert example. (你的文章缺少具体的例子。)

  She lacks patience in dealing with children. (与孩子打交道她缺少耐心。)

  3)lacking用作形容词:be lacking in sth.

  Philip was not lacking in ability. (菲力普并不缺少能力。)

  His reception of us was lacking in warmth.(他对我们的接待缺少热情。)

  9. These are both pretty obvious signals.

  通常pretty用作形容词,而在本句中pretty作副词用。如:

  1)She was happy to live in the pretty valley. (住在美丽的山谷里她很开心。)

  2)The pretty little girl brought much delight to her family. (那个漂亮的小姑娘给全家带来了莫大的快乐。)

  3)I will be back pretty soon. (我不久就回来。)

  4)She felt pretty tired. (她感到相当累。)

  5)I am pretty certain the performance will be a success. (我相当有把握演出会成功。)

  10. In fact, non-verbal communication car, as the saying goes, speak volumes.

  as the saying goes意思是“正如成语所说,俗话说”。在本句中,as the saying goes做插入语。

  speak volumes意思是“很有意义;含义很深;充分说明”。如:

  1)The one photograph speaks volumes. (这一张照片就很有意义。)

  2)The look on her face spoke volumes.她的脸色意味深长。)

  3)Her silence spoke volumes for her attitude. (她的沉默清楚地表明了她的态度。)

  本课主要词组

  1. means of

  2. involve sth/doing sth

  3. refer to

  4. agree with

  5. communicate sth. to sb.

  6. tie to / be tied to

  7. in order to

  8. be categorized into

  9. be common to

  10. fiddle with

  11. be lacking in

  12. start doing sth.

  13. and so on

  14. in fact

  15. give off

  16. look away

  17. in embarrassment

  18. for short

  19. as the saying goes

  20. speak volumes

  Text B    body talk

  短语表达

  1. talk a liking to

  He couldn't understand why the boss suddenly took a liking to him.

  2. chances are that…

  Chances are that he will not be able to get the job.

  3. anything… but

  It is not anything you say but something you do that counts.

  4. devote to

  Father asked him to devote his attention to his study.

  5. apart from

  Apart from this consideration, there is no other reason why we should not go.

  6. be involved in

  He was not involved in the scandal.

  7. tend to

  He tends to get irritated if you press him for an answer.

  8. be aware of

  He is not aware of the mistake he has made.

  9. according to

  You have to do according to what he said.

  10. complain of

  The moment he got in, he began to complain of the weather.

  11. let alone

  He wouldn't hesitate to die for her, let alone give her some help.

  12. be hostile to

  No knows why he is so hostile to his brother.

  13. impress sb. with sth.

  He impressed us with his sincerity.

  14. take note of

  He didn't take note of the weather forecast and was caught in a heavy rain.

  15. go on

  I didn't know anything about what was going on outside.

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