2. It would almost certainly refer to means of communication that involve the use of words.
在第四单元中我们已经学过refer to （提到，涉及）这个短语。再请看几个例句。
1）In his speech he referred to the difficulties they had overcome. （在发言中，他提到了他们所克服的困难。）
2）What he said at the meeting doesn't refer to you. （他在会上所说的不是指你。）
1）If I were you，I wouldn't get myself involved in this problem. （如果我是你，我不会让自己卷进这个问题中。）
2）She didn't want to be involved in trouble. （她不想卷入纠纷。）
3）To accept the job would involve my living in London. （若接受这份工作，我必须得住在伦敦。）
4）Building this road will involve the construction of some tunnels. （造这条路包括建造一些隧洞。）
3. NVC for short.
这是一个省略句，补充完整应该是Non-verbal communication is called NVC for short.
1）Unidentified flying object is called UFO for short. （不明飞行物被简称为UFO）
2）People's Republic of China is ften written as P.R.C. for short. （中华人民共和国常被缩写为P.R.C.）
4. …the average European will smile and nod approval.
1）The average driver thinks that accidents only happen to other people.（司机一般都认为事故只发生在其他人身人。）
2） We averaged 70 miles an hour. （我们平均每小时行70公里。）
3）His performance is above the average. （他的成绩在一般水平之上。）
1）They nodded agreement. （他们点头表示同意。）
2）He nodded me a welcome when I went in. （我进去时，他向我点头表示欢迎。）
3）I nodded to him in greeting. （我向他点头打招呼。）
4）Father nodded in approval when he listened. （父亲听着时点头表示赞同。）
5）Homer sometimes nods. （智者千虑，必有一失。）
6）He didn't give our plan the nod. （他没有同意我们的计划。）
5. …because body language is very much tied to culture…
本句中的be tied to sth.意思是be related to， have to do with （与…有关），如：
1）Many diseases are tied to smoking. （许多疾病与吸烟有关。）
2） The misunderstanding was tied to cultural differences. （这个误会与文化差异有关。）
be tied to 也可以表示be restricted by （受…约束），如：
1）She was tied to housework and wouldn't be able to come. （她被家务事束缚，无法前来。）
2）If you have small children， you will be tied to your home. （如果你有小孩子，你就会被束缚在家了。）
6. Quite a lot of work is now being done on the subject of NVC， which is obviously important， for instance， to managers， who have to deal every day with their staff， and have to understand what other people are feeling if they are to create good working conditions.
1）I want to buy the house， which has a garden. （我想买那座房子，它有一个花园。）
2） The students， who wanted to go out on a picnic， were disappointed when it rained.（学生们想出去野餐，天下雨了大家都感到失望。）
3）The football match will be put off till next week， when we can get everything ready.（足球赛将推迟到下周，那时我们能把一切准备就绪。）
4）The place， where we stayed， has changed so much. （那个地方我们住过，那儿的变化很大。）
1）He is not easy to deal with. （他不容易打交道。）
2）I don't know how to deal with this situation. （我不知道如何应付这种局面。）
7. I expect you understand all those， except perhaps “proximity”。 动词expect通常有如下用法：
1）except + 宾语（名词或代词）
I am expecting a letter. （我在等信。）
The teacher is expecting you. （老师在等你。）
2） expect +（宾语）+ 动词不定式
I expect to be back next week. （我预计下周回来。）
I didn't expect him to come so early. （我没料到他会来得这么早。）
3） expect + that从句
He didn't expect that the work could be so difficult. （他没料到这工作会如此艰难。）
They expected that the war would end soon.（他们期望战争早日结束。）
8. A person who holds a hand over his mouth when he is talking is signaling that he is lacking in confidence.
1）lack用作名词：（for） lack of （因）缺乏
He showed a complete lack of confidence. （他显得毫无信心。）
The case was dismissed for lack of evidence. （因缺乏证据，那个案子被驳回了。）
Your article lacks concert example. （你的文章缺少具体的例子。）
She lacks patience in dealing with children. （与孩子打交道她缺少耐心。）
3）lacking用作形容词：be lacking in sth.
Philip was not lacking in ability. （菲力普并不缺少能力。）
His reception of us was lacking in warmth.（他对我们的接待缺少热情。）
9. These are both pretty obvious signals.
1）She was happy to live in the pretty valley. （住在美丽的山谷里她很开心。）
2）The pretty little girl brought much delight to her family. （那个漂亮的小姑娘给全家带来了莫大的快乐。）
3）I will be back pretty soon. （我不久就回来。）
4）She felt pretty tired. （她感到相当累。）
5）I am pretty certain the performance will be a success. （我相当有把握演出会成功。）
10. In fact， non-verbal communication car， as the saying goes， speak volumes.
as the saying goes意思是“正如成语所说，俗话说”。在本句中，as the saying goes做插入语。
1）The one photograph speaks volumes. （这一张照片就很有意义。）
2）The look on her face spoke volumes.她的脸色意味深长。）
3）Her silence spoke volumes for her attitude. （她的沉默清楚地表明了她的态度。）
1. means of
2. involve sth/doing sth
3. refer to
4. agree with
5. communicate sth. to sb.
6. tie to / be tied to
7. in order to
8. be categorized into
9. be common to
10. fiddle with
11. be lacking in
12. start doing sth.
13. and so on
14. in fact
15. give off
16. look away
17. in embarrassment
18. for short
19. as the saying goes
20. speak volumes
Text B body talk
1. talk a liking to
He couldn't understand why the boss suddenly took a liking to him.
2. chances are that…
Chances are that he will not be able to get the job.
3. anything… but
It is not anything you say but something you do that counts.
4. devote to
Father asked him to devote his attention to his study.
5. apart from
Apart from this consideration， there is no other reason why we should not go.
6. be involved in
He was not involved in the scandal.
7. tend to
He tends to get irritated if you press him for an answer.
8. be aware of
He is not aware of the mistake he has made.
9. according to
You have to do according to what he said.
10. complain of
The moment he got in， he began to complain of the weather.
11. let alone
He wouldn't hesitate to die for her， let alone give her some help.
12. be hostile to
No knows why he is so hostile to his brother.
13. impress sb. with sth.
He impressed us with his sincerity.
14. take note of
He didn't take note of the weather forecast and was caught in a heavy rain.
15. go on
I didn't know anything about what was going on outside.