21.initiate vt. 开始；发起，倡议；接纳新成员
1）We should initiate direct talks with the trade unions.（我们应该与贸易联合会开始直接对话。）
2）They initiated a new program of reform. （他们开始实施一项新的改革方案。）
3）The club will initiate new members next week. （俱乐部将在下周接纳新成员。）
22.restrict vt. 限制；约束
restricted adj. 受限制的；有限的
restriction n. 限制，约束
1）Women in China are no longer restricted to domestic labor now.（现在，中国妇女不再被束缚于家务劳动了。）
2）He was restricted in his movements. （他的行动受约束。）
3）This rule has a very restricted application （这条规则的适用范围极为有限。）
4）The government placed restrictions on sales of weapons. （政府对武器销售实行限制。）
23.depict vt. portray （描画，描述）
1）The painter tried to depict the splendour of the sunset. （画家试图描绘出日落的壮丽景象。）
2）She went on to depict the confusion of departure （她继续描述离开时的混乱情景。）
24.imply v. 暗示，含有的意思
implied adj. 含蓄的
implication n. 含义
1）I don't imply that you are wrong. （我的意思不是说你错了。）
2）His silence implied consent. （他的缄默表示同意。）
3）I don't understand the implied meaning of this sentence. （我不理解这句话的含义。）
4）The implication of his statement is that I was wrong. （他这话的含义是我错了。）
25.alternative n. 供选择的东西 adj. 两者择一的；供选择的
1）He was given the alternative of going on to college or starting to work.（他得在上大学继续求学和开始工作之间作出选择。）
2）Is there any alternative to undergoing a surgical operation？ （除外科手术外还有其它办法吗？）
3）You have no alternative but to stay here overnight. （你只好留宿一夜，别无他法。）
4）We should explore alternative possibilities in solving the problem.（我们应该探求各种供选择的可能性来解决这个问题。）
5）The alternative plans of having a picnic on taking a boat trip put them in a dilemma.（去野餐或者去乘船旅游二者只能择一的计划使他们左右为难。）
1. For more than a quarter of a century， evidence has been increasing that children's exposure to violence on television has long-lasting effects on their behavior.
a quarter （of）“四分之一”，如：a quarter of a pound（四分之一磅）；a quarter of a century（四分之一世纪）；a quarter of a mile（四分之一英里）；a quarter （of a dollar） （25美分）；a quarter of a million（25万）；a quarter （of an hour）（15分钟）。
…that children's exposure to violence on television…
that 引导的是一个同位语从句，这个同位语从句没有直接跟在名词evidence的后面，而是被has been increasing隔开了。同位语的作用是对它所说明的名词作进一步解释，说明这个名词指的是谁或什么。如：
1）I had no idea that he told us a lie. （我不知道他对我们说了谎话。）
2）You have to produce enough evidence that he is guilty.（你得拿出足够的证据说明他有罪。）
3）There was little possibility that they would succeed. （他们成功的可能性极小。）
4）There can be no doubt that TV violence affects children. （毫无疑问，暴力电视节目对儿童有不良影响。）
exposure to “暴露于…”，如：
1）The best part of the job was her constant exposure to books.（她这个工作的最大优点是能经常接触书籍。）
have an effect on “对…有作用（影响）”，如：
1）Constant rain had much effect on the harvest. （持续的降雨对收成有很大的影响。）
2）The cement factory has much effect on the environment.（水泥厂对环境的影响很大。）
3）His persuasion had little effect on her.（他的劝说对她没什么作用。）
2.…the amount of television time allocated each week to violent programs increased significantly.
…the number of violent acts on television…has increased…。
上面两个句子中分别用了amount和number两个词。amount用来修饰从体积，重量，金额等方面着眼的东西，一般在of后接用不可数名词；而number则用以修饰可数的人或物。在第一个句子中，amount of后面用的是不可数名词time，第二个句子中number of后面用的是可数名词acts.再请看例句：
1）A large amount of money has been spent on this project.（一大笔钱已经花在了这个工程上。）
2）The amount of work assigned to him was formidable.（分配给他做的工作量极大。）
3）The number of students of the university has been increasing. （这所大学的学生人数在增加。）
4）The number of tourists to that place is limited.（去那个地方旅游的人数有限。）
1） The time has come for action/act.（采取行动的时间了。）
2） The thoughtless young man did another foolish act.（那个鲁莽的年轻人又做了件傻事。）
3） Every sudden emotion quickens the action of the heart.（每件突如其来的令人激动的事情都能加快心跳。）
4） Actions speak louder than words.（事实胜于雄辩。）
3.Given the amount of time that children watch television， it has become one of the most powerful models they want to follow.
given在本句中用作介词，意思是considering， taking into account（考虑到），在词汇部分我们已作了比较详细的讲解，再请看两个例句：
1）Given they are fresh from university， they've done a great job.（考虑到他们刚走出大学校园，他们干得不错。）
2）Given that he has always been dreaming of visiting the great wall， it seems cruel not to take him to Beijing.（他一直梦想游长城，不带他去北京似乎太残酷了。）
The work must be done within the given time. （工作必须在规定时间内完成。）
Given the chance， she could have done as well as you have.（如果给他这个机会，她会干得跟你一样好。）
4.Children naturally often want the toys shown on and advertised during these programs.
Shown on and advertised during these programs 在本句中的作用是分词短语作定语，相当于被动语态的定语从句，修饰toys.
1）Last night， we saw a documentary dubbed in English.（昨晚，我们看了一部用英文译制的记录片。）
2）The play put on by the first-year students was very good.（一年级学生演出的剧目很好。）
3）The letters written in pencil are from my brother.（那些用铅笔写的信是我弟弟带来的。）
These programs 是 shown on 和advertised during 这两个词组中的介词的共用宾语。如：
He doesn't care about and has no interest in other people's opinion.（对别人的观点他不在乎也没兴趣。）
5.With these toys， their play tends to be more imitative than imaginative.
1）He is in bed with flu.（他因患流感卧病在床。）
2）Her eyes were dim with tears.（她的双眼因泪水而模糊。）
3）The boy's face was white with nervousness.（那个男孩的脸因紧张而发白。）
1）Plants tend to die in hot weather if you don't water them.（植物在炎热天气如不浇水容易枯死。）
2）He tends to get impatient if you ask him more than two questions.（如果你问他两个以上的问题，他往往会不耐烦。）
6.The narrow range of most violence-related toys advertised on television jeopardizes the role of play in helping children make better sense of their own feelings and interpret their world.
1）His reading is of very wide range.（他的阅读面很广。）
2）Over the long range， the most important step will be a general tax reform.（从长远看，最重要的步骤是全面实行税制改革。）
Make sense of 意思是“了解；弄明白”。如：
1）I can not make any sense of what he says.（他的话我弄不懂。）
2）His lecture helped me make better sense of the poem.（他的讲解帮助我更好地理解这首诗。）
3）I could make no sense of his carelessly written letter.（我看不懂他马马虎虎写的那封信。）
7.Many preschool teachers do not like to have commercially made toy weapons brought into the classroom and welcome hearing your concerns about this matter.
have…toy weapons brought into the classroom（把玩具武器带进教室。）have sth. done 是极为常见的用法，如：
1）I need to have my bike repaired.（我需要把自行车修一下。）
2）He had his files destroyed before he left.（在离开前，他把文件都毁了。）
3）She wanted to have the rooms repainted before moving in.（她想在搬入前把房间重新粉刷一遍。）
1）He ran to the door to welcome his friends. （他向门口跑去，欢迎他的朋友。）
2）Welcome to Beijing.（欢迎到北京来。）
3）Her marriage was not welcomed by the family.（她的婚姻不被家人接受。）
4）They gave her a warm welcome.（他们给她以热烈欢迎。）
5）He received a hero's welcome at the airport.（他在机场受到英雄般的欢迎。）
6）You are welcome to use my bike.（我的自行车你尽管用。）
7）He is a welcome guest.（他是个受欢迎的客人。）
concern about sth. 意思是“对…的关心”，在第九单元中，我们学过be concerned about. 如：
1）We are all concerned about his education.（我们都关心他的教育。）
2）His parents are very much concerned about his health.（他的父母非常关心他的健康。）
3）My concern about the matter is known to all.（人人知道我对这件事的关心。）
1. a quarter of 2. expose to
3. have an effect on 4. allocate…to
5. point out 6. distinguish from
7. tend to 8. make sense of
9. apply…to 10. be crazy about
11. put together 12. ask sb. about sth.
13. have sth. done 14. concern about
15. an alternative to sth. 16. look for
Text B Why don't girls think like boys？
1. do well
Many people believe that boys do well in science.
Mr. Smith didn't expect that he could do so well in industrial engineering.
2. in one's opinion
In my opinion， what he said could be true.
Parents should be friendly with their children in his opinion.
3. be good at
He is good at English， but he is better at computer.
She is good at imitating other people's way of talking.
4. according to
According to some doctors， only 1 out of 20 patients who had lung cancer could survive.
According to the text， aggression in boys is caused by mothers.
5. on the average
On the average， girls score higher on tests that measure vocabulary， spelling， and memory.
We made 65 miles an hour on the average.
6. be determined by
People's abilities are not determined by sex.
The rise and fall of the prices is determined by supply and demand.
7. be headed by
One of the scientific research teams was headed by Mr. Watson.
This company is headed by John's twin brother.
8. be ready to
He is always ready to help people in need.
She is not ready to take on that kind of responsibility.
9. take notes
He is amazed to see that students take notes on what he says in class.
He decided to take notes of the development of the political events.
10. lean against/on
She felt weak， so leaned against the wall.
He leaned the bike against a tree.
11. insist upon/on
He insisted on paying the meal.
Most companies insist upon having an interview before they accept an employee.