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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(44)

2007-01-11 14:09   【 】【我要纠错

Unit22(第65讲—第67讲)

  19. positive adj. 确定的;积极地,肯定地

  positively adv. 确定地,明确地;积极地,肯定地

  1) He was frightened by the results of his blood test, for all tested items show positive reactions.(验血结果把他吓坏了,每一个项目都显示阳性反应。)

  2) I'm positive about it.(对这点我有绝对把握。)

  3) They longed for a positive answer.(他们渴望得到肯定的答复。)

  4) You should adopt a more positive attitude toward life.(对生活你应该采取更积极的态度。)

  5) He never answered my questions positively.(他从不肯定地回答我的问题。)

  20. aspect n. 方向;外表

  1) They considered the plan in all its aspects.(他们全面地考虑了这一计划。)

  2) His face had a frightening aspect.(他的脸色很吓人。)

  21. emerge v. 出现

  1) The sun emerged from behind a cloud.(太阳从云朵后面出来了。)

  2) Different ideas have emerged.(不同意见出现了。)

  3) A modern industrial city is now emerging.(一个现代化的工业城市正在兴起。)

  本课简介

  人人都知道健康的重要,但人们对于参加健身活动的态度如何呢?本文作者通过许多具体的事例告诉我们,人们对于参加健身活动有许多认识上的误区,因而有必要重新审视自己在这一问题上的态度和做法。

  人们对于健康活动有哪些看法呢?一些学生认为,留出时间来健身是浪费时间,健身活动并不比学打桥牌对他更有用,学业和前程才是最重要的。还有人认为健身固然重要,但实在没有时间健身。也有人说自己已经够健康了,保持现状应该没有问题。另外有些人则抱怨没有运动设施,也无法从他人那儿得到什么帮助,或者觉得运动后的浑身汗味令他们不舒服。

  以上种种皆是不愿意进行健身活动的人们的看法,那么对于那些原意进行健身活动的人们来说,他们的认识和做法也并非没有问题。有人说,我跑步是因为宿舍里的每一个人都在晚上跑步。也有人说,我运动时每消耗3500卡热量就能减掉一磅体重,圣诞节前我只有十磅要减了。还有人说,这个周末天气凉爽,星期六看来是个好日子。另外,健身只是为了长寿也是常见的看法。

  你的认识是否类似于上述某种观点?请记住健康虽不一定保证长寿,但能有助于你快乐地生活每一天。

  本课主要语言点

  1. Recently we were told by a student that setting aside time for improving his physical fitness would be a total misuse of his working hours.

  that引导的是一个宾语从句,在这个从句中,动名词短语setting aside time…做主语,此类结构在英语中很常见。如:

  1) He told me that getting up early in the morning was hard for him.(他告诉我早起对他来说很困难。)

  2) The teacher said that cheating on exams was on the increase in many schools.(那位老师说在许多学校考试作弊现象在增长。)

  3) My brother told me that setting up his own company would not be totally impossible.(我兄弟对我说建立他自己的公司并不是一件完全不可能的事。)

  set aside 意思是to reserve or keep sth. for a special use or purpose (留出、拨出);set aside也可表示overturn(驳回、取消),disregard(不顾)。如:

  1) He decided to set aside 50 yuan every month so that he could buy a used bike.(他打算每个月留出50块钱以便能买辆二手自行车。)

  2) His parents asked him to set aside 30 minutes every morning reading English.(他父母要求他每天早晨留出30分钟读英语。)

  3) The government set aside thirteen per cent of the money for health and education.(政府拨出这笔钱地百分之十三用于健康和教育。)

  4) The original verdict was eventually set aside by the Supreme Court.(原先地裁决最终被最高法庭驳回。)

  5) We must set aside all formality and another try.(我们必须不拘形式再试一次。)

  a / the misuse of sth.意思是 use sth. in an incorrect or improper manner(误用、滥用)。如:

  The misuse of company assets brought about heavy losses.(滥用公司财产造成了严重损失。)

  在词汇部分我们讲到mis-是一个前缀,常指things being done badly or wrongly. 如:understand-misunderstand , print-misprint等等。

  2. He assured us that he would be no better served by a fitness program than by learning to play bridge.

  本句中地no是一个副词,用在副词比较级地前面,表示“并不、毫不”。no也可以在形容词比较级地前面。如:no more than, no less than, no longer than,no farther than 等等。

  1) I could no more play piano than you.(我和你一样不会弹钢琴。)

  2) This place is no better than slum.(这地方与贫民窟差不多。)

  better是副词well的比较级形式,served是个过去分词,可用作形容词,如: better organized, better prepared, better managed等等。

  assure是个及物动词,意思是“使确信、使放心”,主要用法是:

  1) assure sb. of sth.

  He assured me of the feasibility of the plan.(他使我确信这个计划是可行的。)

  2) assure sb. that……

  I assured my mother that I would handle the problem.(我向母亲保证我能处理这个问题。)

  请注意区别assure,ensure,insure和secure这四个动词。

  assure指以十分肯定的语气向别人保证某事一定发生,多用assure sb. of / that在结构中;ensure意为确保某种行动或动因的结果一定会发生,后面可以跟sth.或that从句,但不能带双宾语;insure意思是“给…保险”;secure的意思是make safe(使安全)。

  1) He assured me that Dr. Baker would come.(他向我保证贝克博士会来。)

  2) To ensure the child's quick recovery, the doctor gave him three different medicines.(为了保证孩子尽快康复,医生给了他三种不同的药物。)

  3) The house is insured against fire.(这房子保了火灾险。)

  4) They tried their best to secure the bridge from further attack.(他们尽力保护桥梁免受进一步的攻击。)

  3. College and his preparation for a career were his only priorities.请注意区prepare 和prepare for的区别。

  prepare sb. or sth. 指make them ready for an event or action that will happen in the future,如:

  We have to prepare our lessons carefully.(我们得仔细备课。)

  prepare for an event or action指get oneself ready for it; make plans for it so that it and prepared when it happens, 如:

  The children washed out hands and prepared for the meal.(孩子们洗好手准备吃饭。)

  名词preparation通常用在短语make preparations for和in preparation for当中,如:

  1) They were making preparations for the old man's funeral.(他们在为老人的葬礼做准备。)

  2) We will have to collect new material in preparation for the experiment.(我们得收集新资料为实验作准备。)

  priority指 give priority to和 take / has priority当中。如:

  1)This project has priority over all others.(这个项目比所有其他项目都更受重视。)

  2)Education is given first priority in their family.(教育在他们家是予以最优先考虑的问题。)

  4. This student has seen being physically fit as an end rather than the means we know it to be.

  see sth. as意思是“把…看作为”,我们以前学过不少类似的短语,如:regard…as,look upon…as,think of…as,view…as等等。

  being physically fit意思是“身体健康”。

  an end rather than the means意思是“是一种目的而不是达到目的的方法”。 rather  than意思是“而不是”。

  1)He was seen as the most capable person in the company.(人们认为他是公司最能干的人。)

  2)We saw her silence as consent.(我们把她的沉默看作为同意。)

  3)To be physically fit is our greatest wish for grandfather.(身体健康是我们对爷爷的最大希望。)

  4)You need to do more exercise if you want to be physically fit.(如果你想身体健康,就需要进行更多的锻炼。)

  5)He came all the way to China for promoting friendship rather than for making money.(他千里迢迢来到中国不是为了赚钱,而是为了增进友谊。)

  5. His opinion is one of the many feelings, pro or con, that people hold about their personal involvement in a physical fitness program.

  pro和con在本句中作形容词用,pro的意思是for(赞成),con的意思是against(反对)。pro or con在句子中作后置定语,修饰名词feeling.后置定语在英语中也很常见。如:

  1) Countries, big or small, should be equal.(国家无论大小都是平等的。)

  2) He studied in a room, clean and tidy.(他在干净整齐的房间里学习。)

  (在上述例句中,两个成对的或反对的形容词,用and或or连接,共同修饰一个名词。这是形容词作后置定语的一种用法。)

  1)The active involvement of thousands of people in the election campaign surprised him.(成千上万的人积极参与竞选活动令他惊奇。)

  2) He avoids involvement in politics.(他避免卷入政治。)

  6. Certainly some of there individuals may have physical limitations that make activity extremely difficult, and others are engaged in time-consuming activities that until finished do not permit opportunities for recreation.

  that make activity extremely difficult是一个定语从句,修饰physical limitations.

  Be engaged in sth. 意思是be involved in sth.(使从事,使忙于),如:

  1)They were engaged in the study of soil conservation.(他们在从事土壤保持的研究。)

  2) It is inappropriate for him to engage in this activity.(他从事这一活动是不合适的。)

  7.…I'll have no difficulty staying that way.

  have (no) difficulty doing sth.(做某事有/无困难),也可以用have (no) trouble doing sth.。如:

  1)He has no difficulty understanding the Chinese film.(看懂那部中国电影他没有困难。)

  2)I had a lot of trouble getting back to sleep after I answered the phone call.(接过电话后,我无法再入睡。)

  8.…you may have made a commitment to a physical fitness program that might be rather narrow in scope.

  make (a) commitment to 意思是make a firm promise(作出承诺),或者involvement(投入)。

  Narrow in scope意思是范围很窄,很狭隘。我们接触过在形容词后面加介词in再加名词的机构,如similar in appearance(外表相像)。

  9.What could I achieve if I were really in top physical condition?

  本句中用了虚拟语气,从句中用过去时(be动词用were),主句中用could或should / would / might加动词原形,表示的是与现在事实相反的假设,如:

  1)If he were on time, we wouldn't have to wait for him.(如果他能准时,我们就不用等他了。)

  2) If they had time now, they would come to see us.(如果他们现在有时间,他们就来看我们了。)

  in top physical condition 意思是“身体很健康”。如:

  The old man is in top (very good, excellent…) physical condition though he is already 76.(老人虽已七十六岁,但身体非常健康。)

  10. In the final analysis, we think that although fitness will not guarantee that you will live longer, it can help you enjoy the years you do live.

  in the final analysis意思是ultimately(归根结底),如:

  They realized in the final / last analysis that their job was to tell public the facts.(他们认识到他们的工作归根结底是把事实公诸于众。)

  guarantee的意思是保证,担保,后面可跟名词;to do或that从句。如:

  1) Wealth doesn't guarantee happiness.(财富不能保证快乐。)

  2)They guaranteed to finish the work in two hours.(他们保证在两个小时内完成这项工作。)

  3)I guarantee that they will win the game.(我保证他们会赢这场比赛)。

  do在句中起强调作用。

  本课主要短语(phrases and expressions)

  1.set aside

  2.a misuse of

  3.no better than

  4.prepare for / make preparations for

  5.be physically fit

  6.be seen as

  7.rather than

  8.pro or con

  9.involvement in / be/become/get involved in

  10. in pursuit of

  11. be engaged in

  12. have (no)difficulty doing sth.

  13. get support from

  14. make commitment to

  15. narrow in scope

  16. approach to

  17. in top physical condition

  18. be capable of

  19. keep in mind

  20. in the final analysis

  Text B    people and colors

  短语表达

  1. in general

  In general, girls do better on test about vocabulary than boys.

  In general, there are two different ideas about where to go.

  2. remind sb. of sth.

  The way he walks reminds me of his father.

  The picture reminds me of the days I spent in the countryside.

  3. associate with

  People usually associate the underground with something evil.

  They like to associate with people from all walks of life.

  4. react to

  I cannot imagine how the audience will react to his speech.

  Young children react to the color of an object before they react to its shape.

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