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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(38)

2007-01-11 13:51   【 】【我要纠错

Unit19(第56讲—第58讲)

  19.Breed v. 繁殖;饲养;养育  n. 品种,种类

  1)Some animals will not breed when caged.(有些动物关在笼内就不产仔。)

  2)He was bred to be a gentleman.(他被作为绅士养育成人。)

  3)They are of the same breed.(他们是同一类人。)

  4)They raise many breeds of dog.(他们养着许多不同种的狗。)

  20.Provided conj. if (假如,若是)

  1)We will be there before 10, provided we don't waste time.(如果我们不浪费时间,我们就能在10点之前到那儿。)

  2)We will go provided that the weather is fine.(假如天晴,我们就去。)

  3)Provided that no objection is raised, we will set back the program.(如果没人反对,我们就把这个项目推迟。)

  请注意:provided不是过去分词,而是连词,作“假如,只要”解,在口语中常用providing. Provided that与if的不同在于:provided that所表示的“如果”,含有希望该条件实现的含义。

  21.Determination n. 决心,决定;结论

  determine v. 决定,决定

  1)He is a man of determination.(他是一个有决断力的人。)

  2)This strengthened his determination not to give in.(这更坚定了他不屈服的决心。)

  3)The doctor's determination was made after the blood test.(医生的结论是在验血之后作出的。)

  4)We haven't determined a date for the meeting.(我们还没有确定会议的日期。)

  5)He determined to study harder.(他决心更努力地学习。)

  6)They are determined to carry out the plan.(他们决心实施这一计划。)

  22.Clash n. 冲突    v. 发生冲突

  1)Thousands of demonstrators clashed with the police.(数千名示威者与警察发生了冲突。)

  2)They wanted to visit both places, but the dates clashed.(他们两个地方都想去,但日程有冲突。)

  3)They got into a verbal clash because of a misunderstanding.(由于误解他们产生了口角。)

  4)An armed clash is unavoidable.(武装冲突不可避免。)

  请注意区别crash,crush和clash.

  Crash指因坠下或猛冲而砰地碰撞,如plane crash(坠机);crush指压碎,压坏,如crush a plot(粉碎阴谋);crush grapes(榨葡萄)

  本课简介

  当一个物种的死亡率高于出生率时,久而久之这个物种就会灭绝。自生命产生起的数百万年间,已有多个物种灭绝。无法适应环境变化的生物,难以与适应性更好、更强壮的生物相抗衡的生物,其最后的命运都将是消亡。在过去的几十年中,人为地猎杀动物或是改变其生息的自然环境已使得其些物种灭绝。如此事便不胜枚举。亚马逊地区自然环境的改变、植被的毁坏将使多个物种灭绝。盲目无度地猎杀动物使得北美的水牛几近灭绝。

  越来越多的人们开始关注野生动植物的保护。方法之一是将濒临灭绝的物种移进动物园和公园,使它们有可能繁衍足够多的后代将来能重返自然。方法之二是建立野生动物保护区,使动物在自然环境中得到照顾。

  本课语言点

  1. An animal species becomes extinct when it fails to produce enough young in each generation to keep pace with the death——rate.

  本句中become是连系动物, extinct是形容词,extinct 通常指动、植物的种灭绝,不再存在。句子中的it代指 (the) animal species.

  fail to do sth. 意思是“没能做到…”如:

  1) He failed to realize his dream of flying round the world.(他没能实现飞行世界的梦想。)

  2) I failed to persuade him to give up smoking.(我没能劝说他把烟戒掉。)

  3) Don't fail to live up to what your parents expect of you.(别辜负父母对你的期望。)

  4) Don't fail to wake me up.(不要忘记叫醒我。)

  Keep pace with 是一个常用词组,意思是“跟上”,如:

  1)He was too old to keep pace with the modern ideas of life.(他年纪大了,跟不上现代生活观念。)

  2)Earnings have not kept pace with inflation.(收入还没有与通货膨胀的速度保持同步。)

  2. We can tell from fossil evidence in rocks that many living species become extinct over the million of years since life began.

  本句中的tell不是“告诉”的意思,而是“断定”或“辨别”的意思。如:

  1)Can you tell her from her twin sister?(你能分得出她和她的孪生姐妹吗?)

  2)Can you tell which is right?(你能断定哪一人是对的吗?)

  that在句中引导宾主从句,做tell的宾语。

  1)He had had a bad cold over Christmas.(他在圣诞节期间得了重伤风。)

  2)They read a lot of books over the vacation.(假期里他们看了不少书。)

  3. …… extinction is the fate of any animal that has specialized too far to change when its environment changes, or has to compete with a better-adapted and more powerful animal.

  that在句中引导定语从句,修饰animal.

  specialize 通常指“专门研究,专门从事”,如:

  1) He specializes in medicine. (他专攻医科。)

  2) This shop specializes in cooking utensils.(这家商店专门经销饮具。)

  在本课文中specialize的意思是“专化,以特殊方式演化。”

  Animals and plants are specialized to fit their surroundings. (动植物是按照特殊方式演化以适应各自的环境的。)

  too…to…的意思是“太…以致于不能…”如:

  1) I was too disappointed to try again.(我太失望,不想再尝试。)

  2) He is too young to take care of himself.(他太年幼,照顾不了自己。)

  compete with 意思是“与…竞争”,也可用compete against.

  1)He didn't want to compete with others for this position.(他不想与别人竞争这个职位。)

  2)Sometimes animals have to compete against each other for the chance to survive.(有时,动物为了生存不能相互竞争。)

  better adapted意思是“适应得更好的”。better是副词well 的比较级形式,adapted 是过去分词做形容词用。这类表达形式在英语中十分常见,如:well-known,poorly-dressed,better-prepared等等。

  4. A number of examples can be given of the way in which natural environment are being rapidly changed……

  a number of 意思是“许多”,如:

  1)A number of proposals had been put forward at the meeting. (会上提出了许多建议。)

  2)A number of students have passed the exam.(已有许多学生通过了考试。)

  of在本句中的意思是关于,相当于about.如:

  1) They were not told of this new policy. (关于此项政策,他们没有被告知。)

  2) They wanted to know every detail of what had happened.(对于已发生的事,他们想知道每一个细节。)

  5. There is every likelihood that many species of animals will be made extinct because of these and similar clearances of natural vegetation.

  Likelihood是一个名词,意思是“可能”,相当于 possibility,that在本句中引导同位语从句,对 likelihood作进一步的补充说明。如:There is no doubt that he is a reliable person.(毫无疑问,他是一个可信赖的人。)

  Clearance 在本句中的意思是“(植被)砍伐殆尽;清除。”

  Clearances of vegetation will lead to the loss of water and soil.(砍伐植被会引起水土流失。)

  6. The North American buffalo is a case of the near-extinction of a species through hunting.

  a case of 在本句中的意思是“一个例子,”相当于“an example of ” 如:

  1) This is a case of students cheating on exams. (这就是学生作弊的一个例子。)

  2) It is a typical case of misunderstanding.(这就是误解的典解例子。)

  在第九单元中我们已经学过case这个词,请注意掌握与case 有关的几个短语:

  in any case (无论如何,总之)

  in case (假如;以免)

  in the case of (就…来说,至于…)

  in this case (既然是这样)

  through在句中的意思是“由于,因为”, 相当于because.

  1) The mistakes were made through carelessness.(这些错误是由于粗心大意造成的。)

  2) Many people are hard of hearing through old age.(许多人因年老而听觉不灵。)

  7. But even when the danger is widely publicized, the financial rewards for the hunters may be so great that they choose to ignore the threat to the species.

  publicize是个动词,意思是“宣传”,在第十七单元中我们已学过这个词,-ize是一个动词后缀,通常用在形容词的后面构成动词。

  financial rewards 意思是“赏金”。reward 在本句中作名词,有时也可作动词用,如:

  1) He offered a reward of 1000 yuan for the finder of his pet dog.(他给拾得他的宠物狗的人酬谢1000元。)

  2) His efforts were rewarded by success.(他的努力获得了成功。)

  choose后面接不定式,表示“选定,愿意”,如:

  1)He chose to stay there for another week. (他决意在那儿再住一周。)

  2)I chose to say nothing about it.(我决意对那件事闭口不谈。)

  在名词threat后面用介词to,表示“对…的威胁”。如:

  The clearance of vegetation will be a great threat to the wildlife.(把植被砍伐殆尽对野生动物将是极大的威胁。)

  8. And animals are sometimes killed out of a wish to reduce numbers to help the species to survive.

  out of 在本句中以及前一个几句子中的意思是“出于”,如:

  1)He was silent out of embarrassment.(他由于窘迫而沉默。)

  2)She opened the mail out of curiosity. (她出于好奇打开了邮件。)

  句子中前一个动词不定式to reduce number…在句子中作定语,修饰名词wish.如:

  1) They failed in their attempt to land on the island.(他们在岛上登陆的企图失败了。)

  2) I have no confidence in my ability to fulfil the task.(我对自己完成这项任务的能力没有信心。)

  句子中的第二个动词不定式to help the species to survive做目的状语,相当于so as to或in order to help the species…。如:

  1)He worked harder (so as) to catch up with the others.(他更努力地学习以赶上别人。)

  2)To achieve the aim, we must learn from others. (为了实现这个目标,我们必须向他人学习。)

  9.The killing of the Canadian seals is claimed to be for this purpose, and the use of their skins for furs is only a by-product.

  be claimed to 在本句中的意思是“据说”。如:

  He is claimed to have inherited a lot of money.(据说他继承了一大笔钱。)

  for this purpose 意思是“为这个目的”。如:

  1)They decided to have a talk for military purpose. (为了军事目的,他们决定进行一次会谈。)

  2)For this purpose, I gave him all the necessary materials. (为了这个目的,我把所需的材料都给了他。)

  请注意掌握与 purpose有关的一些短语:

  on purpose (为了;故意地)

  to the purpose (中肯的;合适的)

  10. There is always the chance that enough off-spring will be born to return them one day to their natural environment-provided it still exists, and that hunters don't kill them again!

  本句中的第一个that引导的是一个同位语从句,对名词chance做进一步解释。

  Provided在句中做介词用,相当于if.如:

  1)I will give you the money provided you tell me the truth. (如果你说实话,我会给你钱。)

  2)He will come to the party provided he has time.(如果有时间他会来参加聚会。)

  在词汇部分我们提到过,口语中常用providing替代provided.

  11.But the parks are large, the wardens few and the determination of hunters very great.

  本句中,形容词few和great的前面省去了be 动词(few 前省去了are ,great 前省去了is),作者是要告诉读者,公园太大,管理人太少,猎人们的决心太过坚定,因而野生动物的保护问题仍然难得解决。

  12.The hunters were armed with modern weapons and several people were killed.

  arm在本句中用作动词,意思是“武装,装备”,be armed with意思是“以…装备起来的”。

  1) They believed they would win as they were armed with modern weapons.(他们坚信自己会赢,因为他们有现代化的武器装备。)

  2) Armed with secretarial skills she will find a job easily.(具备了秘书的技能,她会很容易地找到一份工作。)

  13. … and tourism can add to the income of countries.

  add to的意思是“增加”,如:

  1)The newly built squares add to the beauty of this city.(新建的广场增加了这座城市的美观。)

  2)Your company adds to the enjoyment of our visit.(有你的陪同,我们这次访问更加愉快了。)

  3)I hope my arrival would not add to your difficulties. (希望我的到来不能增添你们的困难。)

  本课主要词组

  1. keep pace with

  2. compete with

  3. because of

  4. at such a rate

  5. at surprising speed

  6. a case of

  7. choose to

  8. lead to

  9. such as

  10.out of existence

  11. out of fear

  12. be claimed to

  13. for this purpose

  14. be concerned about

  15. under threat of

  16. be armed with

  17. add to

  18. look after

  19. in a different form

  Text B    The Killer Smogs

  短语表达

  1. be filled with

  Her eyes were filled with tears when she told us the story.

  The room is filled with boxes of all sizes.

  2. wash away

  The rich soil was washed away as there were no trees and grass to hold it.

  It took her quite a while to wash away the stains on her coat.

  3. be caused by

  Lung cancer might be caused by excessive smoking.

  The accident was caused by the driver's carelessness.

  4. be known for

  He is known for his wide scope of knowledge.

  Scotland is known for its beautiful countryside.

  5. combine with

  It is necessary to combine theory with practice.

  See what will happen if you combine hydrogen with oxygen.

  6. prevent from

  Bad weather prevented them from going camping.

  The terrible noise prevented me from getting a good sleep.

  7. pile up

  Pile up the books on the table, please.

  Don't wait until problems pile up.

  8. due to

  The train was late due to heavy fog.

  Our achievements are due to their help.

  9. add to

  His explanation added to her annoyance.

  More happiness will be added to people's life if you are generous enough to give praise.

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