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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(28)

2007-01-11 12:00   【 】【我要纠错

Unit14(第41讲—第43讲)

  2. Failing to be impressed by a friend's collection of stamps, yawning when a golfer tells you about what great shot he made… are all things that educated people try not to do.

  本句中三个并列的动名词短语做主语,整个句子是一个“主语+系动词+表语”的句型。如:

  1)Smoking is not good for your health. (吸烟有害你的健康。)

  2) Making experiment is one way of learning. (实验是学习的一条途径。)

  be impressed by 意思是“给…深刻印象”。如:

  1)I was impressed by his talent. (他的才干给我留下了深刻的印象。)

  2)He was impressed by the gorgeous sunset. (绚丽的夕阳给他留下了深刻的印象。)

  golfer意思为“高尔夫球运动员”,这个词是由golf加后缀-er构成的,英语中这一类词很多。如:baker (面包师傅),gardener (园丁),miller (磨坊主),singer (歌唱家),user (使用者。)

  1) He tried not to let out the secret. (他试图不泄露秘密。)

  2) We tried not to be misled by them. (我们努力不被他们误导。)

  3. There are no laws enforcing respect.

  本句是一个There be + noun + V-ing 结构,表示存在(有),there失去表示场所的意义。如:

  1) There was a fire burning in the fireplace. (壁炉里火在燃烧。)

  2) There were two bulldozers knocking the place flat. (两台推土机把那儿夷平。)

  句中的enforce是一个及物动词,意思是“实施;强制”。如:

  1) It is necessary to enforce discipline in the army. (在部队里执行纪律是必要的。)

  2) He strongly objected to enforcing obedience on children. (他强烈反对强迫儿童服从。)

  4. These guidelines represent what a majority of people consider acceptable and what they consider unacceptable.

  represent在本句中做及物动词用,意思是“代表;体现”。如:

  1) The blue lines on the map represent rivers. (地图上的蓝线代表河流。)

  2) These views don't represent the real thinking of the local residents. (那些观点并不反映当地居民的真实思想。)

  句中what引导的是宾语从句,如:

  1) I will always remember what my mother said to me before I went to college.(我将永远记住我上大学前妈妈对我说的话。)

  2) I didn't see what they were doing there. (我没看见他们在那儿干什么。)

  3) His idea couldn't represent what the ordinary people really liked.(他的想法不能代表普通百姓真正所喜欢的东西。)

  consider是一个常用动词,通常有以下几种用法:

  1) consider + 宾语

  He had no time to consider the matter. (他没有时间考虑这件事。)

  2) consider + 宾语 + 宾语补足语

  Some people considered the attack a mistake. (有人认为那次进攻是个错误。)

  3) consider + that 从句

  We consider that the young man is not guilty. (我们认为那个年轻人无罪。)

  4) consider + V. + ing He considered changing his job. (他考虑换一份工作。)

  5) consider to be/as

  They consider themselves to be very lucky. (他们认为自己很幸运。)

  He is considered to be an authority. (他被认为是权威。)

  They considered the house as beautiful. (他们认为那房子很美。)

  在上面的三个例句中,to be和as都可以被省略,因此三例句可以改写为:

  They consider themselves lucky.

  He is considered an authority.

  They consider the house beautiful.

  5. They are not even aware that this habit will bother the other members of the audience.

  aware这个形容词很常用,需好好掌握,在第十二单元中我们已经接触过这个词,在此再巩固一下。

  1) be aware of

  If you were aware of all that, you would change your mind. (如果你知道了那一切,你会改变主意的。)

  2) be aware that

  He was aware that he had drunk too much. (他知道他喝的太多了。)

  bother在本句中做动词用,意思是“打扰”。在bother后用不定式则表示“费心去做某事”。如:

  1) Don't bother me, I have to finish the work in an hour. (别打扰我,我得在一小时内做完这个工作。)

  2) Don't bother to talk to him. He has no interest in anything. (别费心跟他讲话,他对什么都没兴趣。)

  audience (观众,听众)当一个整体看待,用做单数;当各成员看待,用做复数。如:

  1) The audience was (were) enjoying the performance. (观众在欣赏演出。)

  2) That book has a large audience. (那本书有广大的读者。)

  6. …the look-at-me phone users whose boring conversations are just as dangerous to our mental health as smoke is to our lungs.

  look-at-me是作者自造的复合形容词,意思是“看我多神气”。

  as dangerous…as…形容词的同等比较,意思是“与……同样危险”。

  这句话的意思是“如同吸烟有害我们的肺一样,'那些瞧我多神气'的移动电话使用者的无聊谈话有害我们的精神健康。”

  英语学习中,经常会有不善区别现在分词做形容词和过去分词做形容词的用法和词意的情况,请看下列例句:

  A. interested  interesting

  1. He is interested in that book.

  2. The book is interesting

  B. excited  exciting

  1. We were very excited on hearing the news.

  2. The exciting news was soon spread all over the country.

  C. bored  boring

  1. The audience was bored by the speaker's empty talk.

  2.The boring lecture made my sleepy.

  7. …they listen to their walkmans while the teacher is talking to them.

  listen是一个不及物动词,后面必须加介词to才可以跟宾语,如:听音乐(listen to music),听收音机(listen to the radio),听天气预报(listen to the weather forecast)。请注意,不能丢掉介词to.

  walkman指随身听。注意其复数形式是在后面加-s,而不是把man改成men.

  8. Kids who have no idea what being polite means will pay the price sooner or later.

  have no idea of sth. 意思是“对……不理解”。have no idea后面接从句,常可省去of,如:

  1)He had no idea what was likely to happen next. (他无法预料接下去会出现什么情况。)

  2)I have no idea why she left.(我不知道她为什么离去。)

  polite是形容词,前面必须用系动词,而在what从句中,做主语用的系动词be则要变成being.如:

  Being honest means telling no lies. (诚实意味着不说谎话。)

  句子中的who引导的是一个定语从句,修饰kids,而what则引导了一个同位语从句,对idea的内容加以解释。如:

  1)I have no idea what will turn up.

  2)I have no idea how soon they will arrive.

  3)Word came that they had succeeded.

  pay the price意思是“付出代价”。如:

  They will pay the price for their ignorance. (他们将为自己的无知付出代价。)

  sooner or later意思是“迟早”,如:

  You will understand me sooner or later. (你迟早会理解我的。)

  9. When they join the work force, their employers and associates alike will soon realize that the behavior of these rude young people is closer to that of animals than civilized people.

  associate在本句中做名词,意思是“同事”。

  alike通常做形容词用,如:The two brothers are very much alike. (这两兄弟非常相象。)在本句子,alike作副词用,意思是“一样地”。

  1)Teachers and students alike will have a 3-week holiday. (老师和学生一样将有为期三周的假期。)

  2)The book is interesting and instructive alike. (这书既有趣,也有教益。)

  句子中的第一个that引导的是一个宾语从句。第二个that则用来替代前面出现过的名词,本句中that替代前面的behavior,意思是“这些粗鲁的年轻人的行为更接近动物的行为。”

  1) By 1990, production in the area is expected to double that of 1980.

  2) The weather in Shanghai is milder than that of Beijing.

  10. Being polite and showing respect can give us an edge.

  Edge在本句中的意思是“优势”(advantage),如:

  1) The edge was with our team. (优势在我们队这边。)

  2) Since he obtained the edge, he was sure to win. (既然他取得了优势,他一定会赢。)

  3) have an edge over sb. (胜过某人)

  4) maintain a nuclear edge (保持核优势)

  本课主要词组

  1. think of           2. be impressed by

  3. fall asleep          4. a trip to

  5. interact with         6. a majority of

  7. show respect for       8. as well

  9. be aware of         10. listen to

  11. have no idea        12. pay the price

  13. sooner or later       14. be close to

  15. because of         16. get ahead

  17. give sb. an edge       18. be based on

  Text B   Why we walk in circles

  短语表达

  1.rather than

  He came all the way to China for promoting friendship rather than for making money.

  He was reading a book rather than watching TV.

  2.somewhat

  He felt somewhat tired.

  This book is somewhat difficult to understand.

  3.instead of

  Instead of pushing and crowding, he waited quietly for his turn.

  He gave us a lot of trouble instead of help.

  4.go astray

  The letter had gone astray.

  Make sure that no sheep go astray.

  5.keep from

  The poor child was kept from seeing his mother.

  The bad weather kept us from getting there as scheduled.

  6.cut off

  Cut me off if I talk too much.

  Gas supplies had now been cut off.

  7.be worth

  This book is worth reading.

  This problem is worth following up.

  8.reach one's goal

  You have to work hard to reach your goal.

  9. such as

  Many stories such as these will prove instructive to the children.

  10.intend to

  He intended to give us an explanation, but he didn't.

  I didn't intend to hurt you.

  11.no more…than

  He is no more a teacher than a writer.

  We are no more satisfied than you are.

  12.让步状语从句的倒装

  Young as he is, he holds an important position in the company.

  Smart as they are, they are always modest.

  Child as he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.

  13.独立结构:with +名词+过去分词

  With many eyes fixed on her, she felt very nervous.

  With all the work completed, we felt greatly relieved.

  With all his savings gone, he had to find a job now.

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