1.31.What is the manner of articulation？
The“manner of articulation”literally means the way a sound is articulated.At a given place of articulation，the airstream may be obstructed in various ways，resulting in various manners of articulation，are the following：（1） plosive：[p,b,t,d,k,g]（2）nasal：[m,n]（3）trill（4）tap or flap（5）lateral：[l]（6）fricative：[f,v,s,z]（7）approximant：[w,j]（8）affricate
1.32.How do phoneticians classify vowels？
Phoneticians，in spite of the difficulty，group vowels in 5 types：（1）long and short vowels，e.g.[i]（4）rounded and unround vowels，e.g.[i]（5）pure and gliding vowels，e.g.[I].
1.33.What is IPA？When did it come into being ？
The IPA，abbreviation of“International Phonetic Alphabet”,is a compromise system making use of symbols of all sources,including diacritics indicating length,stress and intonation,indicating phonetic variation.Ever since it was developed in 1888，IPA has undergone a number of revisions.
1.34.What is narrow transcription and what is broad transcription？
In handbook of phonetics，Henry Sweet made a distinction between“narrow”and“broad”transcriptions，which he called“Narrow Romic”.The former was meant to symbolize all the possible speech sounds，including even the most minute shades of pronunciation while Broad Romic or transcription was intended to indicate only those sounds capable of distinguishing one word from another in a given language.
1.35.What is phonology？What is difference between phonetics and phonology？
（1）“Phonology”is the study of sound systems- the invention of distinctive speech sounds that occur in a language and the patterns wherein they fall.Minimal pair，phonemes，allophones，free variation，complementary distribution，etc.，are all to be investigated by a phonologist.
（2）Phonetics，as discussed in I.28，is the branch of linguistics studying the characteristics of speech sounds and provides methods for their description，classification and transcription.A phonetist is mainly interested in the physical properties of the speech sounds，whereas a phonologist studies what he believes are meaningful sounds related with their semantic features，morphological features，and the way they are conceived and printed in the depth of the mind phonological knowledge permits a speaker to produce sounds which from meaningful utterances，to recognize a foreign“accent”，to make up new words，to add the appropriate phonetic segments to from plurals and past tenses，to know what is and what is not a sound in one's language.
1.36.What is a phone？What is a phoneme？What is an allophone？
（1）A“phone”is a phonetic unit or segment.The speech sounds we hear and produce during linguistic communication are all phones.When we hear the following words pronounced：[pit]，[tip]，[spit]，etc.，the similar phones we have heard are [p] for one thing，and three different[p]'s，readily making possible the“narrow transcription or diacritics”.Phones may and may not distinguish meaning.A“phoneme”is a phonological unit；it is a unit that is of distinctive value.As an abstract unit，a phoneme is not any particular sound，but rather it is represented or realized by a certain phone in a certain phonetic context.For example，the phoneme[p] is represented differently in [pit]，[tip] and [spit].
（2）The phones representing a phoneme are called its“allophones”，i.e.the different （i.e.phones）but do not make one word so phonetically different as to create a new word or a new meaning thereof.So the different[p]'s in the above words are the allophones of the same phoneme[p].How a phoneme is represented by a phone，or which allophone is to be used，is determined by the phonetic context in which it occurs.But the choice of an allophone is not random.In most cases it is rule-governed；these rules are to be found out by a phonologist.
1.37.What are minimal pairs？
When two different phonetic forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the same place in the string，the two forms（i.e.，word）are supposed to form a“minimal pair”，e.g.“pill”and“bill”,“pill”and“till”，“till”and“dill”，“till”and“kill”，etc.All these words together constitute a minimal set.They are identical in form except for the initial consonants.There are many minimal pairs in English，which makes it relatively easy to know what are English phonemes.It is of great importance to find the minimal pairs when a phonologist is dealing with the sound system of an unknown language（see Hu Zhuanglin et al.，pp65-66）。
1.38.What is free variation？
If two sounds occurring in the same environment do not contrast；namely，if the substitution of one for the other does not generate a new word form but merely a different pronunciation of the same word，the two sounds then are said to be in“free variation”.The plosives，for example，may not be exploded when they occur before another plosive or a nasal （e.g，act，apt，good morning）.The minute distinctions may，if necessary，be transcribed in diacritics.These unexploded and exploded plosives are in free variation.Sounds in free variation should be assigned to the same phoneme.
1.39.What is complementary distribution？
When two sounds never occur in the same environment,they are in“complementary distribution”.For example，the aspirated English plosives never occur after[s],and the unsaturated ones never occur initially.Sounds in complementary distribution may be assigned to the same phoneme.The allophones of[l],for example,are also in complementary distribution. The clear[l] occurs only before a vowel,the voiceless equivalent of[l] occurs only after a voiceless consonant, such as in the words“please”,“butler”,“clear”,etc.,and the dark[l] occurs only after a vowel or as a syllabic sound after a consonant，such as in the words“feel”,“help”,“middle”,etc.
1.40.What is the assimilation rule？What is the deletion rule？
（1）The“assimilation rule”assimilates one segment to another by“copying”a feature of a sequential phoneme，thus making the two phones more similar.This rule accounts for the raring pronunciation of the nasal[n] that occurs within a word.The rule is that within a word the nasal consonant[n] assumes the same place of articulation as the following consonant.The negative prefix“in-”serves as a good example.It may be pronounced as [in]，[i] or [im] when occurring in different phonetic contexts：e.g.，indiscrete-[ ]（alveolar）inconceivable-[ ]（velar）input-['imput]（bilabial）
（2）The“deletion rule”tells us when a sound is to be deleted although is orthographically represented.While the letter“g”is mute in“sign”,“design”and“paradigm”it is pronounced in their corresponding derivatives:“signature”,“designation”and“paradigmatic”.The rule then can be stated as：delete a [g] when it occurs before a final nasal consonant.This accounts for some of the seeming irregularities of the English spelling （see Dai Weidong，pp22-23）。