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自考“英语翻译”完整技巧篇(9)

2007-06-25 16:12   【 】【我要纠错

  8.英语的句子结构紧凑,汉语里一个有主语有谓语可以独立的分句,译成英语可能就变成了一个名词词组,这就更说明了英语的名词性特征。

  a. The outbreak of the civil war totally damaged his splendid dream of contributing what he had for his country.(战争爆发彻底破坏了他那为国奉献一切的梦想。)

  b. The train was delayed by the heavy snowfall. (火车因为积雪而晚点。)

  II. 英语的动词结构反过来转译成汉语的名词:一些由名词派生的表示意愿、情绪等的动词,在翻译成汉语时往往还将其返回来译成名词:1. This course is intended to provide aid to those women who , for this reason or that, fail to get the opportunity to receive education.(这门课的目的就是给那些因为种种原因没有机会上学妇女们提供帮助。)

  2.A well-dressed man, who looked and talked like a millionaire , turned out to penniless. (那个穿着讲究,外表和谈吐都象百万富翁的人却身无分文。)

  3. Gordon Allport , an American psychologist , found nearly 18,000 English words characterizing differences in people‘s behavior. (美国的心理学家高顿。爱尔波特发现有一万个英语单词可以用来表达人们行为的不同特征。)

  III.名词转移成形容词:1. The speech presented by the visiting scholar left considerable excitement in his mind(那位到访学者的演讲着实让他感到很激动。)

  2. The room is small but very cozy and his satisfaction can be read from his face.(这间房间很小但很舒适,从他脸上一眼就可看出他很满意。)

  IV. 其它词汇的转译方法:1.介词译成动词a. If it‘s academic success you’re after,you can ‘t neglect studying. (如果你追求学术上的成功,一定不能忽视了学习。)

  b. Those who are for the program please raise your hand.(同意这项计划的人请举手。)

  c. Will those in favor of the proposal come to attend the meeting next Saturday ?

  (赞成这项提议的人下星期六来开会好吗?)

  d. It wasn‘t that I was after money. I just wanted to make sure that he was found guilty again in the civil suit. (并不是因为我想要钱,我只是想让他即使是在民事案件方面也被判有罪。)

  2.副词或形容词转译成名词:a. In an overcrowded country, very few people own enough to make them financially independent. 在一个人口过度稠密的国家里,很少有人能在财政上独立。)

  b. To be economically prosperous, China will apply more flexible policies of opening to the outside. (为了能达到经济上的繁荣,中国将实行更为灵活的开放政策。)

  c. Aside from offering financial support, work can keep us healthy not only physically but also mentally.(工作除了能给我们提供财政上的支持外,还能够使我们在身体上和心理上保持健康。)

  一些短语中:To be mentally prepared …。,心理上做好准备To be materially equipped………,物资上作好准备During the politically eventful late-1960s…。,政治上正置多事之秋的60年代。

  自考英语翻译技巧五

  关于加词、减词等在翻译时应注意的问题。

  所谓加词就是根据原文的思想内涵透过文字表达上的表面现象,充分照顾到另一种语言的文法特征、描述规律,在将其翻译成另一种语言时该加词的地方加词,该减词的地方减词,千万不可以为了可以追求所谓的“精练、简洁”而随随便便地减词;也不可以离开原文,凭空腻测,随随便便加词。具体地说:

  加词:

  I.由于词汇方面的原因而引起的加词现象:1.加动词由于英语是一门“静止”的语言,在所有的词汇当中,用名词的居多;而相比较而言,汉语则无此限制,不管有多少动词都可以并排使用。因此,许多英语的名词翻译成汉语时都要加上一些动词,否则,意思则很不完整,例如:a. But by 1981 he had to have further surgery on his hand. And a month later, he suffered as stroke. (到了1981年,他的手不得不又做了一次手术。一个月以后,他又中风了。)

  b. His speech in at the meeting turned out exert an stimulating effect on the mind of the people present that day. (他那天在会上所做的报告使所有在场的人深受鼓舞。)

  c. He maintain that only hard work and unswerving perseverance can lead to improved performance.(他坚持认为,只有通过勤奋工作加上不懈的努力才会取得好的成绩。)

  d. The lives claimed by shoddy construction projects should be enough to put governments at all levels on the alert. (伪劣建筑夺取了很多人的生命,这一点足以使我们的各级部门提高警惕。)

  e. Efforts must be made to improve service for more than 1 million domestic and overseas tourists. (为了一百万的国内外旅客的利益,我们一定为改善服务质量而进行努力。)

  f. You ought to know better than to go swimming straight after a meal.(你不应该一吃过饭,马上就去游泳,这是很不明智的。)

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