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自考“英语翻译”完整技巧篇(3)

2007-06-25 16:05   【 】【我要纠错

  6.The nomads who made these markings lived by hunting a d fishing during the last Ice Age which began about 35,00 B.C. and ended about 10,000 B.C.作出这些刻记的游牧人,依靠狩猎和捕鱼生活在冰河时代的晚期。这段时期大约始于公元前35,000 年而结束于公元前10,000 年。

  7. For several hundred years, cases have been reported of children who have been reared in the wild by animals kept isolated from all social contact.在过去的几百年中,已经有记载说,确实有被动物养大的与世隔绝的狼孩的存在。

  另外,翻译成汉语时还要注意未省略关系代词和关系副词的定语从句,翻译时所遵守的原则和上述的一样:关系代词引导的定语从句:8.He is the very person (whom) I‘m looking for.他正是我要找的人。

  9.This is the flexible policy that our government has pursued consistently. 这就是我们政府一直追求的灵活政策

  10.Those whose families cannot afford board and expenses can be allowed to receive scholarship.那些家里提供不起食宿的学生可以得到奖学金。

  11.There are forms that occasionally occur which should not be taught to students.有些形式是不能告诉给学生的。

  关系副词引导的定语从句:12.I took Mr. John to the village , where I had spent my carefree childhood. 我把约翰先生带到我度过无忧无虑童年的乡村。

  13.I still remember the time when we studied in the same university.我还记得我们一起上大学的日子。

  具体翻译来说,定语从句的翻译可分为限制性和非限制性定语从句两种,翻译成汉语时不论是在语序方面还是重复先行词方面都有一定的讲究:

  限制性定语从句的翻译可分为以下几方面:1.前置:这种定语从句一般比较短,翻译起来比较方便,和汉语的词序完全一样,例如:a.This is the finest weather that I have ever seen this month.这是这个月我所看到的最好的天气。

  b.Our two countries are neighbors whose friendship is of long standing. 我们两国是友谊长存的友好邻邦。

  c.Teachers generally like the students who achieve high scores in tests.老师通常喜欢考试中成绩好的学生。

  d.他不是一个轻易服输的人He is not the one who will give up easily.

  以上的这些例子告诉我们,如果定语很短的话,我们可以把他象汉语一样放在中心词的前面。

  但是,有的时候,如果定语太长,读起来就不符和汉语的习惯,因此,往往要后置,重复先行词,这就是下面要提到的定语从句的“后置”问题,例如:

  2.后置:a. Misers are often lonely and obscure men whose wealth is revealed only after their death.吝啬鬼经常是看起来年很孤单、不为人所主意,可他们的财富只有等到他们死了以后才暴露出来。

  3.“综合性”的翻译法。

  综合性“的翻译就是,翻译时不需要关系词,其中的关系完全靠上下文的意思来表现出来,例如:a.This is the place where the accident occurred.这就是发生交通事故的地方。

  b.The person who delivered the letter to him is his neighbor. 他的邻居把信交给了他。

  c. There is a big oak tree that stands just in front of the village.村子前面有棵大象树d.Most of our patients welcomed another human being with whom they could talk openly,honestly, and frankly about their trouble. 大多数病人想找人坦率、诚实地倾诉他们的苦衷。

  非限制性定语从句:这里,也可以分为以下几种:1.前置:a. We need a chairman , in whom everyone has confidence 我们需要一个人人都信赖的主席。

  b.The worldly well-known actor, who had been ill for two years , meet thunderstorm applause when reappeared on the stage.那个病了很多年的著名演员,一上台观众就报以雷鸣般的掌声。

  c. Piccaso, whose works inspired many artists, lived until he was a ripe old age.毕加索的作品曾鼓励了很多人,后来年纪很大时,作品也日趋成熟。

  2.后置:这里包括:重复先行词,译成并列分句。这是比较常见的翻译方法:

  a.He deposits a little sum of money in the bank , by which means he hopes to deal with any potential emergency easily.我们每个月都在银行里存一些钱,这样,碰到有任何危机时,我们就可以应付了。

  b. A table has four legs, one of which is broken.桌子有四条腿,其中的一条腿是坏的。

  c. Living in the central Australian desert has its problems , of which obtaining water is not the least. 生活在澳大利亚中部有很多问题,其中取水还不算最艰苦的。

  d.He decided to resign, which is the best thing he could do under the circumstances.他决定辞职,而这是他目前所能做的最好的事。

  e.He is late for class today, as is often the case.他今天迟到了,而这是经常的事。

  以上的句子在翻译成汉语后,要重复先行词。其中的“which ”可以是指前面的整个句子,也可以单指某个先行词。

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