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自考“英语翻译”完整技巧篇(11)

2007-06-25 16:12   【 】【我要纠错

  c. Totally alone in the room, her mother wanted to find someone to talk to (她妈妈觉得一个人在房间里太孤单了,想找个人说说话。)

  7.某些独立结构中:With a book in his hand , the teacher came into the class. (老师走了进来,手里拿本书。)

  8.加副词a. They started up into the sky until the noise of the rocket died away.(他猛地抬头往天空看,直到火箭发射的声音渐渐远去。)

  b. He stole a glance at the pretty girl walking alongside with him. (他偷偷地瞥了他一眼。)

  9.有时还要根据实际需要,加上一些表示“范畴”的词,即表示笼统意思的单词,意见、想法、道理等等。

  a. The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of first importance to a public man. But this is not a business that can be undertaken in day or swiftly improvised by a mere command of the will. (因此,对社会活动家来说,培养业余爱好和新的兴趣就成为头等重要的事情了。但这不是一蹴而就的事情,也不能单靠毅力就能临时凑成。)

  b. A situation in which such a large number of students cheat openly on the exam and escape punishment is very dangerous and cannot last long(如此多的学生作弊,居然没人管,是很危险的,也不可能持久。)

  c. So he began to study the children‘s responses in situation where no milk was provided(所以,他开始研究小孩子得不到牛奶时的反应是什么样的。)

  以上的几句虽然没有“局面”、“情况”等词,但其意思却已经包含在了里面。如果不加上“policy”,“business”,“situation ”等词,意思就不是很清楚,句子也不通顺。

  II. 由于汉英结构不同而造成的加词现象:

  1.由上下文的逻辑关系而引起的加词现象:句子结构方面:a. In most cases, this action will produce results. However , if it does not , there are various means the consumer may use to gain satisfaction. (在大多数情况下,这样做有一定效果。如果还不行,顾客可以采取许多措施直至满意为止。)

  b. They illustrate, for one thing, the underlying American faith that our future rests on the way our children turn out, and that a basic way to affect children‘s development is through their education. (有一点,他们表明了美国人内心深处的一个信念,那就是,我们的孩子如何成长将决定我们的未来,而影响他们发展的一个基本途径就是通过教育。)

  c. That men have learned much from the behavior of animals is hardly new. (人类已经从动物的行为中学到了很多东西的说法并不是什么新鲜事。)

  下面的例句都是一些需要加关系代词的现象:d. He passed the exam , which can be read from his the light on his face. (我从他脸上就可以猜出他已通过了考试。)

  e. He was late on that very morning for the interview , which totally damaged the possibilities of promotion. (他偏偏在面试的那天早晨迟到,结果丧失了一次晋升的绝好机会。)

  f. As is expected , he arrived at the railway station in time. (他果然准时到了火车站)

  2.在无主句、存在句或一些祈使句中中加主语。

  因为在这些句子中,主语虽然没有表示出来,但却早已隐含在句子里面;加上英语对句子表面上的结构要求非常严谨,因此在汉语翻译成英语时往往要加上省略的部分(主语)意思才能完整,例如:a.进行社会主义现代化建设必须尊重知识、尊重人才。

  (In our drive for socialist modernization, we must respect knowledge and talented people. )

  b.你还是带把雨伞吧,以防下雨。

  (You ‘d better take an umbrella in case it rains. )

  c.已经快七点种了,他怎么还没有到?

  ( It is nearly seven o ‘clock now , why hasn ’t he arrived yet?)

  d.一定不要忘记离家前父母对你所说的话。

  (Remember what your said to you before you left home.)

  有时,英语的动名词需要加上其逻辑主语才能显得意思完整:e. His father-in-law doesn‘t appreciate his smoking cigarette so heavily.(他的岳父对他抽这么多的烟很不以为然。)

  3.加宾语她妈妈说,他们应该带孩子一起去参加马丽的生日晚会。

  (Her mother said that they should bring their baby with them to Mary ‘s birthday party.)

  4.有时需要加上语气词:There were no houses whatsoever when we crossed the marshlands on the Long March , we just slept where we could.(我们长征时根本就没房子住,随便找个地方就睡下了。)

  The audience was not interested at all(in any sense) in his long and boring speech.(观众对他那又臭又长的讲话一点都不感兴趣。)

  减词:

  I.和一些单词有关系的减词法1.省略“范畴”词:先看下面的例子:a.系里的领导来找他做说服工作。

  (The leader of the department came to him to the undertake the persuasion)

  b.这次考试不及格,使他深切认识到写好作文在学习英文中的重要性。

  (The failure of this exam made him aware of the importance of writing in learning English.)

  c.这本书的目的是改进学生们的理解能力。

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