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自考“英语翻译”完整技巧篇(6)

2007-06-25 16:12   【 】【我要纠错

  37.Researchers have established that when people are mentally en-gaged, biochemical changes occur in the brain that allow it to act more effectively in cognitive (认知的) areas such as attention and memory. 研究人员证实:人们在动脑筋时,头脑会产生很多的变化,使头脑在注意力和记忆力这类认知领域中更有效地活动

  38. During the ice ages , human beings exposed to the colder temperatures of the time would often make their homes in caves. 在冰河时代,人们面临当时较为寒冷的气温,常常在洞穴里安家。

  逆序法

  39. It was extended and preserved in the 19th century , when our nation spread across the continent , saved the union, and abolished the awful scourge of slavery.在19世纪,我们的国家横跨大陆,拯救了联邦,废除了恐怖的奴隶制的蹂躏,这一信念才得以流传可扩展。

  40.By January 16, just a month after the beginning of the offensive on which Hitler had staked his last reserves in men and guns and ammunition , the German forces were back to line from which they had set out.到1 月16日,德军又回到了他们当初出击的战线,这恰好是希特勒把他最后的兵力、大炮、弹药储备孤注一掷、发动进攻的一个月之后。

  41. Five score years ago, a great American , in whose symbolic shadow we stand by,signed the Emancipation Proclamation. 100 年前,一位伟人签署了《奴隶解放宣言》,今天,我们正是站在这位伟人富有象征意义的雕象下集会。

  变序法(综合法)

  42. Can you answer a question which I want to ask and which is puzzling me?

  我有个问题弄不懂,想请教你,你能回答吗?

  43. He had cleared up those confusions which arose from different medicines that had the same name and from various names that had been given to the same substance. 药名混乱,有的由于不同药物同一名称所引起,而有的则由于同一药物不同名称所造成,他对此一一作了澄清。

  44. One teacher writes that instead of drowning students‘ compositions in critical red ink , the teacher will get far more constructive results by finding one or two things which have been done better than last time, and commenting favorably on them.一位老师这样写到:如果我们能从学生作文中找出一两处比上次做的更好的地方,并提出表扬性评语,而不是用红墨水把学生的作文批改的一塌糊涂,我们就能从中的更富有建设性的结果。

  45. Ours is a profession which traditionally has been guided by a precept that transcends the virtue of uttering the truth for truth‘5 sake , and that is as far as possible do no harm. 我们的职业传统上格守一个信条,那就是尽可能的不造成伤害,这一信条胜过为讲真话而讲真话的美德。

  46. The president said at a press conference dominated by questions on yesterday election results that he could not explain why the Republicans had suffered such a widespread defeat,which in the end would deprive the Republican Patty of Tong-held superiority in the House.在一次记者招待会上,问题集中于昨天的选举结果,总统就此发了言。他说他无法解释为何共和党遭到如此大的失败。这种情况最终使共和党在众议院中失去了长期享有的优势。

  为何要拆句?

  47.Literature offers us the knowledge of the long life which phobia have had in mankind.文献让我们了解到,恐惧症在人类中具有漫长的历史。

  48.What is good , I suppose, is that many people a“e concerned about TV‘ s influence and that we have the power to change what we don’ t like. 我看,好在有许多人关心电视的影响,而我们也有能力改变我们所不喜欢的东西。

  自考英语翻译技巧三

  英汉互译时的词序问题I.两种语言的总体比较:一方面,英汉两种语言都是按照事物发展的客观规律进行的,因而有其共同点,例如:In order to communicate thoughts and feelings , people invented a conventional system of signs or symbols which mean the same to the sender and the receiver. (为了更好的交流思想和感情,人们设计出了通常用的标记和符号系统,而这标记和符号交流双方都能看的懂。)

  以上的几个例句在英汉两种语言里的词序都是一样的;而除此以外,还存在着很多不同点。另一方面,两种语言又有许多不同点。下面就英汉两种语言的不同点进行比较:汉语比较注重事物发展的客观顺序,先发生什么,后发生什么,结果怎样,最后才加上作者的评论和观点,不管有多少动词都可以并列、排比使用,不会出现词法、句法等的冲突 .主题显著,突出主题,而非单单的一个主语,注重句子的“意和”,这就要求我们透过句子的表层结构,深入到句子的内涵,先抓“整体”印象,充分理解过以后再把原文的意思形象翻译出来。

  而英语则不然,英语突出主语,往往是评论、观点在前,叙述、原因在后;表面形式上追求句子的“形和”,对句子的结构要求非常严谨,特别强调句子结构的平衡,往往借助于句法、词法(如主从句、分词、不定式等手段)来维持句子表面上的平衡、完整性,极力避免句子的“头重脚轻”(因此,也就出现了许多“it is said that …”等等无主句)。所以,英文则是把作者的观点、主张放在前面,以后再跟着原因、结果和目的等等从句。这些现象在新闻英语里尤其明显,难怪有人说,“汉语的句子结构好比一根竹子,一节一节地连下去,而英语的句子结构好比一窜葡萄,主杆可能很短,累累的果实附着在上面。”具体情况如下:

  II. 英汉互译时的时间顺序对比:1.The old-fashioned general store is fast disappearing.This is, perhaps, a pity ,because shopping today seems to lack that personal element which existed when shop keeper knew all his regular customers personally. 旧时的百货店很快就消失了。过去,店主私下里都认识他的老主顾们,而在今天这种事情再也不复存在了,这实在是太可惜了。

  2.American education owes a great deal to Tomas Jefferson ……

  托马斯。杰弗逊为美国的教育作出了很大的贡献。

  下面的句子属倒装句型,是典型的英汉在翻译时的顺序差异:

  1.Under the dust was a color map of Paris.(巴黎地图上布满了灰尘。)

  2.Written on the card was a message under the printed Happy Birthday. (卡片上“生日快乐”字样的下面写着一条消息。)

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