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自学考试“高级英语”复习指导(五)

2007-05-11 16:10   【 】【我要纠错

  (三)推断、引申题

  该题形难度较大,要求考生在理解原文的基础上,根据文章中所阐述的事实细节和上下文的暗示与线索进行综合分析,然后做出推断或引申出合情合理的结论。

  这种题型的常用提问方式有:

  1) According to the article, many people may…。

  2) An inference which may (not) be made from the article is…

  3) In the paragraph following this one, we may expect the author to discuss…

  4) It can be concluded from the passage that…

  5) The paragraph preceding (following) this one may discuss…。

  6) The passage implies that…

  7) We can conclude (infer, see) from the article that…。

  8) What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?‘

  9) Where wou1d this paragraph most probab1y appear?

  10) Which of the following can (not) be inferred from the article?

  例如:

  Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a very complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as we1l as those of a myriad of services, including labor, transportation, and public–utility services. The interrelationships of al1 these prices make up the “system” of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything e1se.

  If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define “price”, many would rep1y that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words, that price is the money value of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. The definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the amount and qua1ity of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take p1ace and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that supply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms, return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total “package” being exchanged for the asked—for amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price.

  Question: The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses_______.

  A. unusual ways to advertise products

  B. types of payment plans for service

  C. theories about how products affect different levels of society

  D. how certain elements of price “package” influence its market value

  解答:选D.

  本题要求推断本文后续段落的段意。根据文章最后一句“…both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors…in order that they may evaluate a given price.”买卖双方都要了解所有价格体系的决定因素,以便对实际价格做出评估。后面的段落将按逻辑讨论这些要素,由此选择D为答案。

  (四)正误判断题

  通常询问文章中所述的事情是否真实,某种提法是否正确或文章(作者)是否提及某事。常见题形如下:

  1) All of the following are true except……

  2) The author (passage) does not tell us……

  3) The author mentions all of the items 1isted below except……

  4) Which of the following does not explain…… ?

  5) Which of the following is NOT listed as…… ?

  6) Which of the following is (not) mentioned in the article?

  7) Which of the following statements is (not) true?

  8) Which of the following statements is wrong according to the author?

  例如:

  How men first learnt to invent words is unknown; in other words, the origin of language is a mystery. All we really know is that men, unlike animals, somehow invented certain sounds to express thoughts and feelings, actions and things, so that they could communicate with each other; and that later they agreed upon certain signs, called letters, which could be combined to represent those sounds, and which could be written down. Those sounds, whether spoken or written in letters, we call words.

  The power of words, then, lies in their associations —— the things they bring up before our minds. Words become filled with meaning for us by experience; and the longer we live, the more certain words recall to us the glad and sad events of our past; and the more we read and 1earn, the more the number of words that mean something to us increases.

  Great writers are those who not only have great thoughts but a1so express these thoughts in words which appeal powerfully to our minds and emotions. This charming use of words is what we call literary style. Above all, the real poet is a master of words. He can convey his meaning in words which sing like music, and which by their position and association can move men to tears. We should therefore learn to choose our words carefully and use them accurately, or they wil1 make our speech silly and dull.

  Question: Which of the following statements about the real poet is NOT true?

  A. He is no more a master of words than an ordinary person.

  B. He can convey his ideas in words which sing like music.

  C. He can move men to tears.

  D. His style is a1ways charming.

  解答:选A.

  这是一道是非题,需要找出一个错误的选项。根据文章最后一段,B,C,D三个

  选项都是对的,必须排除。而A项说:一位真正的诗人并不比普通人能更好地掌握和运用

  词语。这一说法显然是不对的(NOT true about the real poet),正符合题意。 A项为正确答案。

  (五)作者态度题

  该类题型是阅读理解部分最难的地方,要求考生根据文章领会作者的态度和情绪。这类题要求考生从文章中作者论述问题的方法、行文的语气和措辞中来把握作者对人与事的好恶,了解作者的态度和情感。

  常用的提问方式有:

  1) By using the expression “……”, the author implies that…。

  2) From the passage we know that the author ——。

  3) How does the author fee1 about?

  4) It can be seen from the passage that the author regards with ——。

  5) The author of the passage seems to be…

  6) The author seems to be in favor of the idea of…

  7) The author‘s attitude towards…… might be best summarized as—’

  8) The author‘s purpose of writing this article is…

  9) What does the writer think of …… ?

  10) What‘s the author’s opinion (attitude)?

  11) What‘s the tone of the passage?

  12) Which of the fo1lowing the author is most likely to agree with?

  例如:

  Around the world more and more people are taking part in dangerous sports and activities. Of course, there have always been people who have looked for adventure —— those who have climbed the highest mountains, explored unknown parts of the world or sailed in small boats across the greatest oceans. Now, however, there are people who seek an immediate excitement from a risky activity which may on1y last a few minutes or even seconds.

  I would consider bungee jumping to be a good example of such an activity. You jump from a high place (perhaps a bridge or a hot-air balloon) 200 meters above the ground with an e1astic rope tied to your ankles. You fall at up to 150 kilometers an hour until the rope stops you from hitting the ground. It is estimated that two million people around the world have now tried bungee jumping. Other activities which most people would say are as risky as bungee jumping involve jumping from tall buildings and diving into the sea from the top of high cliffs.

  Why do people take part in such activities as these? Some psychologists suggest that it is because life in modern societies has become safe and boring. Not very long ago, people's lives were constantly under threat. They had to go out and hunt for food, diseases could not easi1y be cured, and life was a continuous battle for survival.

  Nowadays, according to many people, life offers little excitement. They live and work in comparatively safe environment; they buy food in shops; and there are doctors and hospitals to look after them if they become ill. The answer for some of these people is to seek danger in activities such as bungee jumping.

  Question: The writer of the passage has a(n) ______ attitude towards dangerous sports.

  A. positive B. negative

  C. objective D. subjective

  解答:选C.

  本题要求考生对作者的态度作出判断。作者对危险的体育运动持积极态度(A)还

  是消极态度(B),持客观的态度(C)还是主观的态度(D)?纵观全文,不难看出作者的态度较为客观。所以C为正确答案。

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