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自学考试“高级英语”复习指导(六)

2007-05-11 16:12   【 】【我要纠错

  二、单项选择

  考核学生对词语在上下文中的确切含义的理解。考生根据该词语在文中含义从所提供的解释中勾出正确答案。

  词汇题的提问方式主要有:

  1) By “……”, the author means…

  2) In 1ine……, the word “……” could best be replaced by…

  3) In line……, the word “……,‘ most probably means

  4) In line……, the word “this (that, these, those, it, them)” stands for… -

  5) The ita1icized word in line…… means…

  6) The word (phrase) “……” is closest to…

  7) The word (phrase) “……” probably means…

  8) What is the possible meaning of the word“……” in line… ?

  9) Which is the probable definition of the word ‘……’?

  10) Which of the following is nearest (closest) in meaning to ‘……’?

  例如:

  The wor1d's population continues to grow. There now are about 4 bi1lion of us on earth. That could reach 6 billion by the end of the century and 11 billion in another 75 years. Experts long have been concerned about such growth. Where will we find the food, water, jobs, houses, schools and health care for all these people?

  A major new study shows that the situation may be changing. A large and rapid drop in the world's birth rate has taken place during the past 10 years. Families generally are smal1er now than they were a few years ago. It is happening in both developing and industrial nations.

  Researchers said they found a number of reasons for this. More men and women are waiting longer to get married and are using birth contro1 devices and methods to prevent or delay pregnancy. More women are going to school or working at jobs away form their homes instead of having children. And more governments, especially in developing nations, now support family planning programs to reduce population growth.

  China is one of the nations that has made great progress in reducing its population growth. China has already cut its rate of population growth by about one half since 1970. China now urges each fami1y to have no more than one child. And it hopes to reach zero population growth, the number of births equaling the number of deaths, by the year 2000.

  Several nations in Europe already have fewer births than deaths. Experts said that these nations cou1d face a serious shortage of workers in the future. And the persons who are working could face much higher taxes to help support the growing number of retired people.

  Question: “Fami1y p1anning programs” means _______________.

  A. birth control policy in a country

  B. economic policy in a family

  C. TV programs designed for a family

  D. economic policy in a country

  解答:选A.

  本题问“计划生育”的含义是什么。第三段最后一句指出:“more governments especially in developing nations,now support family planning programs to reduce population growth‘,因此计划生育是减少人口增长的手段,A为正确选项。

  又如:

  I wonder if you realize just how many others share your problem. It is so common for people to distort the truth about themselves. Sometimes it's just an invented excuse when you' re late for something or a pretence that you like someone you don't. These white lies don' t usually harm anyone and indeed often help smooth over difficult social situations. They certainly are embarrassing if exposed but, on the whole, they' re easily forgiven.

  What you describe is a habit of 1ying that is more serious than this. I suspect that the lies you tell are ways of defending an idea you have of your own worth. People who have doubts about their own self-esteem often worry that others wil1 judge them as harshly as they feel they deserve because of a secret idea that they are pretty worthless. In other words, they create a false picture of themselves, a picture of someone who meets all the expectations they think others have of them. And as you say, that causes problems —— since they have to keep living up to that image. At

  the same time, they have to tell further life to cover the stories they have already to1d. According to some authorities, this is particular1y among women especially those who have few opportunities to develop an adequate sense of self-worth.

  I suggest you give yourself one day during which you stick solid1y to the truth about yourse1f. Give yourself a sma1l treat at the end of the day if you have managed to keep it up. Wait a week and then try it 8gain. Once you have achieved three separate lie-free days, see if you can cope with three days running, then extend it to a whole week. Don' t make a promise to yourself that you will never lie again because almost certainly you will —— it's too much to take on at once. Try to change things little by little, by setting yourself manageable targets. Alter a while, you'll wonder why you ever had the problem at al1.

  Question: The expression“ living up to” in the second paragraph can best be replaced by _________.

  A. growing up with B. living with

  C. seeking D. sticking to

  解答:选D.

  这是一道词汇题。Living up to 的意事与A、B、C三个答案意义相距甚远,故而D为本题最佳答案。

  注:解词汇题时也可参看下面“英译中”部分的猜词手段。

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