1. 定义（ definition）
容之间建立起关系的词有： put it in another way，mean，in other words，that is，or，namely
从such as，like，for example，for instance，等词后所列举的例子以及所表示的前后同
1. Depression can be treated by medication and psychotherapy. Ironically， antidepressants can have drowsiness as a side effect. （Reader‘s Digest Jan. 1996）
Psychotherapy（psycho + therapy）： 心理疗法；精神疗法； antidepressants （anti + depress + ant）： n.[医]抗抑郁剂， 抗抑郁病药
2. More recently he introduced himself into the debate on welfare reform by insisting that unwed motherhood， not joblessness， was the key problem.
Unwed （un + wed ）： 没有结婚的，未婚的
1. As truck drivers have found， that can be dangerous， leading to microsleeps——brief periods， lasting one to ten seconds， when you‘re snoozing even though your eyes are open. （Reader’s Digest Jan. 1996）
microsleep： 短暂的昏睡（尤指失去正常睡眠者的阵发性昏睡， 通常仅持续1至10秒钟）
2. A dune is a hill of loose sand heaped by the sand； a glacier is a field of ice formed from compacted snow.
Dune ： 沙丘； glacier冰河；冰川
1. Our uncle was roamer， an incurable wanderer who never could stay in one place.
Roamer = wanderer ： 流浪者， 漂泊者
2. Only last week the bank had discovered nearly a thousand dollars in counterfeit bills， source unknown. Their estimate was that thirty million dollars of bogus money had been produced the previous year. England and Canada were major supply sources of spurious US currency.
Counterfeit bills = bogus money = spurious US currency： 伪钞
1. Her moods seem to go from one extreme to the other—— from deepest apathy to unlimited enthusiasm.
2. He may be dexterous at football， but he is very clumsy on the dance floor.
3. Unlike her gregarious sister， Jane is a shy， unsociable person who does not like to go to parties or to make friends.
1. His son fell into ignominy because of his betrayal， whereas his daughter gained fame because of her heroism in defying the enemy.
Ignominy：无耻行为， 堕落行为，——fame：名声， 声望， 名气
2. Most dentists‘ offices are drab places， but Emilio’s new office is a bright cheerful place.
Drab：单调， 乏味， 无生气——bright：明亮的， 辉煌的， 欢快的
1. It‘s just one more incredible result of the development of micro-processors——those tiny parts of a computer commonly known as silicon chip.
Micro-processors = tiny parts of a computer = silicon chip： 硅片
2. Mary felt perturbed； that is， she was greatly disturbed by her sister‘s actions.
Perturbed = disturbed：使心烦意乱；扰乱；使混乱
3. The floors were washed， the furniture oiled and polished， and the curtains freshly laundered； the whole house was in immaculate condition for the holidays.
Immaculate（。完美的） condition——the summary of the above
4. Henry field displayed his versatility in many ways： he was not only a novelist， he was also a dramatist， an essayist， and a political pamphleteer； he managed a theater and edited four newspapers； he was a learned authority on the law， an exceptionally able and efficient magistrate.
Versatility：多功能性——many different skills
Context and situation
1. In spite of the fact the fishermen were wearing sou‘westers， the storm was so heavy that they were wet through.
Sou‘wester ：一种后沿较宽可护颈之防水帽= southwester = long raincoat
2. Mozart gave his first public recital at the age of six. By the age of thirteen he had written symphonies and an operetta. He is justly called a child prodigy.
Prodigy：天才（特指神童） = gifted child
3. We‘ve discovered that there are two main types of human beings： “racehorses”， who thrive on stress and are happy only with a vigorous， fast-paced life-style， and “turtles”， who require peace， quiet and a generally tranquil environment.
Read the following passage carefully and translate the following sentences
The Birth of Computing： The Forgotten Father Figure
1） It seems curious that Charles Babbage is remembered today as the grandfather of computing， for Babbage never completed a single one of his clunky mechanical calculating machines， and his work was largely forgotten after his death in 1871. It was only with the construction of the first electronic computers in the 1940s， by people who were unaware of Babbage‘s work， that the groundbreaking nature of that work became apparent. Had Babbage never lived， in other words， the rise of the computer would have happened anyway. That is because today’s computers owe their ancestry not to Babbage but to the work of another 19th-century pioneer， Hermann Hollerith.
2） In contrast to Babbage， who wanted to automate the business of mathematical calculation， Hollerith was interested the field of date processing. Babbage intended his elaborate“calculating engines”to be used by scientists， in much the same way that specialist supercomputers are today. The particular application he had in mind was the production of error-free mathematical and astronomical tables. Hollerith， on the other hand， made his name building machines to handle an enormous data-processing task： the analysis of the results of the United States‘ census.
3） When the first American census took place in 1790， tabulating the date it collected took nine months. As the country‘s population grew larger， however， and the number of questions asked in each census increased， a problem of delay gradually emerged. The results of the 1880 census took seven years to compile—making them out of date by the time they were published.
4） This was unsatisfactory because， for example， seats in the House of Representatives were （and are） assigned according to census data. It became apparent that a new way would have to be found to compile the results of the 1890 census， in order to keep up with rapid demographic changes. Indeed， without a new approach the 1900 census would already have been under way by the time the 1890 results became available.
5） Hollerith， a former employee of the Census Bureau， had the idea of building a tabulating machine. His first design， patented in 1884， used a long strip of paper into which holes were punched to represent information， The record for each person was to be punched across the strip， which would then be run through the machines. Electrical contacts made through the holes in the strip would drive electro-mechanical counters. In this way the number of records matching particular criteria could be counted.
6） Before long， Hollerith improved this scheme， by using combinations of holes to represent more complex pieces of information. At the same time， he switched from a paper strip to punched cards， By clever wiring of the tabulating machine， it was possible to count the number of cards with particular combinations of attributes.
7） Hollerith also invented a sorting machine， to facilitate the tabulation of subsets of the population. When a card was inserted into the tabulating machines， the counters would be updated accordingly， and the appropriate drawer in the sorting machine would open.
8） When it came to choosing a tabulating machine for the 1890 census， Hollerith‘s design was one of three contenders. The other two machines used colour-coded slips of paper and chips of wood to represent information. In a competition between them it took 72 hours to record all the data on to Hollerith’s punched cards， which was not vastly faster than the 144 hours and 100 hours taken by the other two machines.
9） The real advantage of Hollerith‘s system became clear， however， when it came to manipulating the stored date and compiling the results. Hollerith’s machines took less than six hours； the other machines took 55 and 44 hours respectively. His design was chosen， and his machines compiled the results of the 1890 census in a mere six weeks， at a saving to the Census Bureau of $5million in staff costs—ten times more than expected.
10） This success enabled Hollerith to expand his Tabulating Machine Company into overseas markets. In 1911， the company merged with two others， and in 1924 the new firm changed its name to International Business Machine—now better known as IBM. There is， in other words， a direct line from Hollerith‘s tabulating machines to mainframe computers and， in 1981， to the first IBM PC.
11） It is ironic that today‘s computer industry has its origins in a date-processing project carried out in 1890 that was completed on time and under budget， Modern computerisation projects， in contrast， tend to have far more in common with Babbage’s ill-fated attempt to build a mechanical computer， which cost a fortune and was eventually abandoned. Perhaps the fact that Hollerith is forgotten， while Babbage is remembered， should not be surprising at all.
Now， translate the following sentences into Chinese：
1. Babbage intended his elaborate故“calculating engines” to be used by scientists， in much the same way specialist supercomputers are today. （in paragraph 2）
2.His first design， patented in 1884， used a long strip of paper into which holes were punched to represent information. （in paragraph 5）
3. At the same time， he switched from a strip to punched cards. （in paragraph 6）
4. The other two machines used colour-coded slips of paper and chips of wood to represent information. （in paragraph 8）
5. This success enabled Hollerith to expand his Tabulating Machine Company into overseas markets. （in paragraph 10）
Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.
The Core Technology & Network Co. Not even Sony's battery and magnetic-tape businesses could escape Idei's reorganization. They were tossed into this new operating company with Sony's semiconductor， disk-drive， optical， and flat-panel-display businesses. The benefits Idei seeks are straightforward. He wants greater standardization of components among Sony products so that the company can sharpen its manufacturing skill and reduce costs on the parts that really matter. Also by sharing more parts， the divisions should find it easier to link their products and pool know-how.
A good example is Sony's Memory Stick data-storage technology， which is finding its way into scores of Sony consumer-electronics products. A Memory Stick is a slim array of memory chips packaged in a durab1e plastic sleeve the shape and size of a stick of gum. The most capacious Memory Sticks hold as much as 60 floppy disks. That makes them a perfect medium for digital photos， MP3 music files， or texts for electronic books. Because the sticks were designed into so many Sony products， the Core Technology & Network Co. had an instant market.
Reorganizing the electronics units worked out so well last year that Idei decided this spring that it's time to get Sony's music and movie businesses on the broadband bandwagon. Despite all the blather about software/hardware synergy over the past decade， these companies had always operated like free agents. But new technologies are bearing down on them with such speed—Sony Music Entertainment had been especially rattled by the huge online underground for free MP3 downloads of hit recording—that they now see the benefits of being closely aligned with a hardware company. It also helps that Stringer， who oversees Sony Pictures and the U.S. operations of Sony Music， is a fervent evangelist of Idei's broadband vision. So at the end of March， Idei consolidated the two companies， along with the Japanese music company， into a new entity called
Sony Broadband Entertainment.
1） He wants greater standardization of components among Sony products so that the company can sharpen its manufacturing skill and reduce costs on the parts that really matter.
2） A good example is Sony's Memory Stick data-storage technology， which is finding its way into scores of Sony consumer-electronics products.
3） Because the sticks were designed into so many Sony products， the Core Technology & Network Co. had an instant market.
4） Reorganizing the electronics units worked out so well last year that Idei decided this spring that it's time to get Sony's music and movie businesses on the broadband bandwagon.
5） But new technologies are bearing down on them with such speed—Sony Music Entertainment had been especially rattled by the huge online underground for free MP3 downloads of hit recording—that they now see the benefits of being closely aligned with a hardware company.