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自学考试“高级英语”复习指导(七)

2007-05-11 16:15   【 】【我要纠错

  三、英译中:考核学生对难句的理解。

  考核学生对难句的理解。

  难句翻译应遵循的主要步骤如下:

  1. 先判断句子结构,确定该句是简单句、并列句还是复合句;

  2. 如果是简单句,找出关键词:主谓宾或主系表;

  3. 如果是并列句、复合句,找出各从句间的关系;

  4. 分清从句层次,理清修饰成份之间的关系;

  5. 区分各从句内的关键词;

  6. 根据汉语习惯,写出译文;

  7. 略作润色,使译文通顺;

  8. 检查校对,拾遗补漏。

  如遇到生词可采取下列办法来力图解决:

  Guess Translation

  1. 定义( definition)

  通过上下文给出的定义,考生可以将某些生词的意思猜测出来。使定义与被定义的内

  容之间建立起关系的词有: put it in another way,mean,in other words,that is,or,namely

  等等。

  2. 重述(restatement)

  所谓重述是指作者用另外的词,短语或句子将前面已述及的内容再重述一下。据重述

  内容,考生可将前面内容中的生词的意思猜测出来。

  3. 举例(examples)

  从such as,like,for example,for instance,等词后所列举的例子以及所表示的前后同

  位关系可以猜测出一些单词的词意。

  4. 对比(contrast)

  从表示对立或相反的信号词可以判断某些词语内容前后意思对立或相反。根据这一点,

  考生可以从其中一个词猜测出另外一个词的意思。

  Word-formation

  1. Depression can be treated by medication and psychotherapy. Ironically, antidepressants can have drowsiness as a side effect. (Reader‘s Digest Jan. 1996)

  Psychotherapy(psycho + therapy): 心理疗法;精神疗法; antidepressants (anti + depress + ant): n.[医]抗抑郁剂, 抗抑郁病药

  2. More recently he introduced himself into the debate on welfare reform by insisting that unwed motherhood, not joblessness, was the key problem.

  Unwed (un + wed ): 没有结婚的,未婚的

  Definition

  1. As truck drivers have found, that can be dangerous, leading to microsleeps——brief periods, lasting one to ten seconds, when you‘re snoozing even though your eyes are open. (Reader’s Digest Jan. 1996)

  microsleep: 短暂的昏睡(尤指失去正常睡眠者的阵发性昏睡, 通常仅持续1至10秒钟)

  2. A dune is a hill of loose sand heaped by the sand; a glacier is a field of ice formed from compacted snow.

  Dune : 沙丘; glacier冰河;冰川

  Synonyms

  1. Our uncle was roamer, an incurable wanderer who never could stay in one place.

  Roamer = wanderer : 流浪者, 漂泊者

  2. Only last week the bank had discovered nearly a thousand dollars in counterfeit bills, source unknown. Their estimate was that thirty million dollars of bogus money had been produced the previous year. England and Canada were major supply sources of spurious US currency.

  Counterfeit bills = bogus money = spurious US currency: 伪钞

  Antonym

  1. Her moods seem to go from one extreme to the other—— from deepest apathy to unlimited enthusiasm.

  Apathy:冷淡;漠不关心——enthusiasm:热心;热情

  2. He may be dexterous at football, but he is very clumsy on the dance floor.

  Dexterous:灵巧的(手);敏捷的 ——clumsy:行动笨拙的;手脚不灵活的

  3. Unlike her gregarious sister, Jane is a shy, unsociable person who does not like to go to parties or to make friends.

  Gregarious:爱群居的;爱社交的——unsociable:不善交际的; 孤僻的

  Contrast

  1. His son fell into ignominy because of his betrayal, whereas his daughter gained fame because of her heroism in defying the enemy.

  Ignominy:无耻行为, 堕落行为,——fame:名声, 声望, 名气

  2. Most dentists‘ offices are drab places, but Emilio’s new office is a bright cheerful place.

  Drab:单调, 乏味, 无生气——bright:明亮的, 辉煌的, 欢快的

  Explanation

  1. It‘s just one more incredible result of the development of micro-processors——those tiny parts of a computer commonly known as silicon chip.

  Micro-processors = tiny parts of a computer = silicon chip: 硅片

  2. Mary felt perturbed; that is, she was greatly disturbed by her sister‘s actions.

  Perturbed = disturbed:使心烦意乱;扰乱;使混乱

  3. The floors were washed, the furniture oiled and polished, and the curtains freshly laundered; the whole house was in immaculate condition for the holidays.

  Immaculate(。完美的) condition——the summary of the above

  4. Henry field displayed his versatility in many ways: he was not only a novelist, he was also a dramatist, an essayist, and a political pamphleteer; he managed a theater and edited four newspapers; he was a learned authority on the law, an exceptionally able and efficient magistrate.

  Versatility:多功能性——many different skills

  Context and situation

  1. In spite of the fact the fishermen were wearing sou‘westers, the storm was so heavy that they were wet through.

  Sou‘wester :一种后沿较宽可护颈之防水帽= southwester = long raincoat

  2. Mozart gave his first public recital at the age of six. By the age of thirteen he had written symphonies and an operetta. He is justly called a child prodigy.

  Prodigy:天才(特指神童) = gifted child

  3. We‘ve discovered that there are two main types of human beings: “racehorses”, who thrive on stress and are happy only with a vigorous, fast-paced life-style, and “turtles”, who require peace, quiet and a generally tranquil environment.

  Racehorse: 赛马型的人

  Turtles: 海龟型的人

  例如2001年的考题:

  Read the following passage carefully and translate the following sentences

  The Birth of Computing: The Forgotten Father Figure

  1) It seems curious that Charles Babbage is remembered today as the grandfather of computing, for Babbage never completed a single one of his clunky mechanical calculating machines, and his work was largely forgotten after his death in 1871. It was only with the construction of the first electronic computers in the 1940s, by people who were unaware of Babbage‘s work, that the groundbreaking nature of that work became apparent. Had Babbage never lived, in other words, the rise of the computer would have happened anyway. That is because today’s computers owe their ancestry not to Babbage but to the work of another 19th-century pioneer, Hermann Hollerith.

  2) In contrast to Babbage, who wanted to automate the business of mathematical calculation, Hollerith was interested the field of date processing. Babbage intended his elaborate“calculating engines”to be used by scientists, in much the same way that specialist supercomputers are today. The particular application he had in mind was the production of error-free mathematical and astronomical tables. Hollerith, on the other hand, made his name building machines to handle an enormous data-processing task: the analysis of the results of the United States‘ census.

  3) When the first American census took place in 1790, tabulating the date it collected took nine months. As the country‘s population grew larger, however, and the number of questions asked in each census increased, a problem of delay gradually emerged. The results of the 1880 census took seven years to compile—making them out of date by the time they were published.

  4) This was unsatisfactory because, for example, seats in the House of Representatives were (and are) assigned according to census data. It became apparent that a new way would have to be found to compile the results of the 1890 census, in order to keep up with rapid demographic changes. Indeed, without a new approach the 1900 census would already have been under way by the time the 1890 results became available.

  5) Hollerith, a former employee of the Census Bureau, had the idea of building a tabulating machine. His first design, patented in 1884, used a long strip of paper into which holes were punched to represent information, The record for each person was to be punched across the strip, which would then be run through the machines. Electrical contacts made through the holes in the strip would drive electro-mechanical counters. In this way the number of records matching particular criteria could be counted.

  6) Before long, Hollerith improved this scheme, by using combinations of holes to represent more complex pieces of information. At the same time, he switched from a paper strip to punched cards, By clever wiring of the tabulating machine, it was possible to count the number of cards with particular combinations of attributes.

  7) Hollerith also invented a sorting machine, to facilitate the tabulation of subsets of the population. When a card was inserted into the tabulating machines, the counters would be updated accordingly, and the appropriate drawer in the sorting machine would open.

  8) When it came to choosing a tabulating machine for the 1890 census, Hollerith‘s design was one of three contenders. The other two machines used colour-coded slips of paper and chips of wood to represent information. In a competition between them it took 72 hours to record all the data on to Hollerith’s punched cards, which was not vastly faster than the 144 hours and 100 hours taken by the other two machines.

  9) The real advantage of Hollerith‘s system became clear, however, when it came to manipulating the stored date and compiling the results. Hollerith’s machines took less than six hours; the other machines took 55 and 44 hours respectively. His design was chosen, and his machines compiled the results of the 1890 census in a mere six weeks, at a saving to the Census Bureau of $5million in staff costs—ten times more than expected.

  10) This success enabled Hollerith to expand his Tabulating Machine Company into overseas markets. In 1911, the company merged with two others, and in 1924 the new firm changed its name to International Business Machine—now better known as IBM. There is, in other words, a direct line from Hollerith‘s tabulating machines to mainframe computers and, in 1981, to the first IBM PC.

  11) It is ironic that today‘s computer industry has its origins in a date-processing project carried out in 1890 that was completed on time and under budget, Modern computerisation projects, in contrast, tend to have far more in common with Babbage’s ill-fated attempt to build a mechanical computer, which cost a fortune and was eventually abandoned. Perhaps the fact that Hollerith is forgotten, while Babbage is remembered, should not be surprising at all.

  tabulate: 制表

  Now, translate the following sentences into Chinese:

  1. Babbage intended his elaborate故“calculating engines” to be used by scientists, in much the same way specialist supercomputers are today. (in paragraph 2)

  2.His first design, patented in 1884, used a long strip of paper into which holes were punched to represent information. (in paragraph 5)

  3. At the same time, he switched from a strip to punched cards. (in paragraph 6)

  4. The other two machines used colour-coded slips of paper and chips of wood to represent information. (in paragraph 8)

  5. This success enabled Hollerith to expand his Tabulating Machine Company into overseas markets. (in paragraph 10)

  参考译文:

  1、 拜倍格打算把他精心设计的“计算机”(用于计算的机器)提供给科学家使用,使用方式差不多就象现在专家使用的超级计算机一样。

  2、 他的第一次设计在1884年获得专利,是在一条长长的纸条上打孔来表达信息。

  3、 同时,他从使用长纸条改为使用打孔的卡片。

  4、 另外两台机器使用含有彩色代码的纸片和木片来表达信息。

  5、 这一成功使赫勒瑞斯能够把他的制表机公司的业务扩展到海外市场。

  再例如:

  Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.

  The Core Technology & Network Co. Not even Sony's battery and magnetic-tape businesses could escape Idei's reorganization. They were tossed into this new operating company with Sony's semiconductor, disk-drive, optical, and flat-panel-display businesses. The benefits Idei seeks are straightforward. He wants greater standardization of components among Sony products so that the company can sharpen its manufacturing skill and reduce costs on the parts that really matter. Also by sharing more parts, the divisions should find it easier to link their products and pool know-how.

  A good example is Sony's Memory Stick data-storage technology, which is finding its way into scores of Sony consumer-electronics products. A Memory Stick is a slim array of memory chips packaged in a durab1e plastic sleeve the shape and size of a stick of gum. The most capacious Memory Sticks hold as much as 60 floppy disks. That makes them a perfect medium for digital photos, MP3 music files, or texts for electronic books. Because the sticks were designed into so many Sony products, the Core Technology & Network Co. had an instant market.

  Reorganizing the electronics units worked out so well last year that Idei decided this spring that it's time to get Sony's music and movie businesses on the broadband bandwagon. Despite all the blather about software/hardware synergy over the past decade, these companies had always operated like free agents. But new technologies are bearing down on them with such speed—Sony Music Entertainment had been especially rattled by the huge online underground for free MP3 downloads of hit recording—that they now see the benefits of being closely aligned with a hardware company. It also helps that Stringer, who oversees Sony Pictures and the U.S. operations of Sony Music, is a fervent evangelist of Idei's broadband vision. So at the end of March, Idei consolidated the two companies, along with the Japanese music company, into a new entity called

  Sony Broadband Entertainment.

  Translation:

  1) He wants greater standardization of components among Sony products so that the company can sharpen its manufacturing skill and reduce costs on the parts that really matter.

  他希望扩大索尼产品元件的统一性,使公司能提高制造技术,降低成本。

  2) A good example is Sony's Memory Stick data-storage technology, which is finding its way into scores of Sony consumer-electronics products.

  索尼的记忆棒数据存储技术就是一个好例子,该技术正逐渐应用于索尼的几十种消费电子产品。

  3) Because the sticks were designed into so many Sony products, the Core Technology & Network Co. had an instant market.

  由于许多索尼产品都使用了这种记忆棒,核心技术和网络公司立刻就拥有了市场。

  4) Reorganizing the electronics units worked out so well last year that Idei decided this spring that it's time to get Sony's music and movie businesses on the broadband bandwagon.

  去年对电子产品生产部门进行的重组进展得如此顺利,以致Idei今年春天决定让索尼公司的音乐和电影业务也要追上宽带浪潮。

  5) But new technologies are bearing down on them with such speed—Sony Music Entertainment had been especially rattled by the huge online underground for free MP3 downloads of hit recording—that they now see the benefits of being closely aligned with a hardware company.

  然而高速发展的新技术正在对它们形成强烈的冲击——索尼音乐娱乐公司一直是网上使用MP3文件免费下载畅销唱片的大规模地下活动特别突出的受害者,因此它们现在认识到和硬件公司建立紧密的联盟可以给它们带来很多好处。

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