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自学考试“高级英语”复习指导(四)

2007-05-11 16:08   【 】【我要纠错

  五、先易后难,逐个解题

  由于测试的短文难易程度各异,考生应根据自己的兴起、爱好或专业知识,先易后难答题。这样做可让考生保持良好的考场情绪,有利于考生正常发挥水平。

  做阅读理解应忌讳的方面

  一忌:不带问题阅读。费力、费时、效率低。

  二忌:草率行事。出题者有时故意出一道似是而非的题目,如果匆忙答题,很容易犯错。

  三忌:主观印象。有的考生爱根据自身的生活经历或常识来答题,而考试则是要根据原文

  旨意来选择答案。

  四忌:一叶障目。只见树木,不见森林。有的考生会被文章的个别内容、局部环节所迷惑,

  结果忽略了文章的全貌。

  五忌:忽略时间。前面耗时太多,后面时间不够用,结果影响成绩

  各种题型讲解

  一、选择题

  考核学生对短文的综合理解程度。考生根据短文内容勾出正确答案。

  常见题型有:

  1. 主旨大意题

  2. 事实、细节题

  3. 是非题

  4. 推理、引申题

  5. 作者观点和态度题

  (-)主旨大意题

  主旨题要求考生在阅读有关文章后能够概括出中心思想,确定段落大意或选定最佳标题。主旨题的常见提问方式有:

  1) From this passage, we learn that…

  2) The article was written to explain…

  3) The author mainly discusses…

  4) The best title for this passage is…。

  5) The central idea conveyed in the above passage is…

  6) The title that best expresses the main idea is…

  7) What does the passage mainly discuss?

  8) What is the main topic (theme, subject, point) of the passage?

  9) What would be the most appropriate title for this passage?

  10) Which of the following is the best title for this passage?

  11) Which sentence best summarizes the article?

  12) Which title suits this passage best?

  例如:

  The United States is a country made up of many different races. Usually they are mixed together and can't be told from one another. But many of them still talk about where their ancestors came from. It is something they are proud of.

  The original Americans, of course, were the Indians. The so-called white men who then came were mostly from England. But many came from other countries like Germany and France.

  One problem the United States has always had is discrimination. As new groups came to the United States they found they were discriminated against. First it was the Irish and Italians. Later it was the blacks. Almost every group has been able to finally escape this discrimination. The only immigrants who have not are the blacks. Surprisingly enough the worst discrimination today is shown towards the Indians.

  One reason the Indians are discriminated against is that they have tried so hard to keep their identity. Of course they are not the only ones who have done so. The Japanese have their Little Tokyo in Los Angeles and the Chinese a Chinatown in New York. The Dutch settlement in Pennsylvania also stays separate from other people. Their towns are like something from the 19th century. They have a different reason from the other groups for staying separately. They live separately for religious reasons rather than keep together in a racia1 group.

  Although some groups have kept themselves separate and others have been discriminated against, al1 groups have helped make the United States a great country. There is no group that has not helped in some way. And there is no group that can say they have done the most to make it a great country.

  Many people sti1l come from other countries to help the United States grow. A good example is the American project that let a man walk on the moon. It was a scientist from Germany who was most responsible for doing that. It is certain that in the future the United States wil1 still need the he1p of people from all racial groups to remain a great country.

  Question: Which of the following statements can best describe the main idea of this passage?

  A. The United States is a country made up of many different races.

  B. Discrimination is the most serious problem in the United States.

  C. All races in the United States have helped make the country a great one.

  D. The prosperity of the United States is mainly due to the hard work of the most discriminated races.

  解答:选C.

  这是一道主旨题,要求我们归纳文章的中心思想。速读全文后,我们就会发现D根本不是本文思想,应首先排除。B与原文的意思不符合。原文第三段第一句讲到美国一直有种族歧视问题,但没有说这是美国最严重的问题。A是本文第一段第一句的原话,但不足以概括全文的中心思想。而文章的第五段强调美国所有的种族都为建设美国做出了贡献,体现了文章的中心思想,所以C为正确答案。

  (二)事实、细节题

  这类问题要求考生找出例证、原因、时间和其它有关的细节或具体的数据等。细节题出题类型主要有以下几种:

  1. According to the author, it is true that …

  2. According to the passage, who (what, where, when)…… ?

  3. How many (much)…… in this article?

  4. In what way…… ?

  5. In what year…… ?

  6. What do we know about…… ?

  7. Why is (are)…… ?

  例如:

  Fear and its companion pain are two of the most useful things that men and animals possess, if they are proper1y used. If fire did not hurt when it burnt, children would p1ay it until their hands were burnt away. Similarly, if pain existed but fear did not, a child would burn itself again and again, because fear would not warn it to keep away from the fire that had burn it before. A real1y fearless soldier —— and some do exist —— is not a good soldier because he is soon killed; and a dead soldier is of no use to his army. Fear and pain are therefore two guards without which men and animals might and die out.

  In our first sentence we suggested that fear ought to be proper1y used. If, for example, you never go out of your house because of the danger of being knocked down and killed in the street by a car, you are letting fear rule you too much. Even in your house you are not absolutely safe: an airplane may crash on your house, or ants may eat away some of the beams in your roof so that the latter falls on you, or you may get cancer!

  The important thing is not to let fear rule you, but instead to use fear as your servant and guide. Fear will warn you of dangers; then you have to decide what action to take.

  In many cases, you can take quick and successful action to avoid the danger. For example, you see a car coming straight towards you; fear warns you, you jump out of the way, and all is well.

  In some cases, however, you decide that there is nothing that you can do to avoid the danger. For examp1e, you cannot prevent an airplane crashing onto your house. In this case, fear has given you its warning; you have examined it and decided on your course, of action, so fear of this particular danger is no longer of any use to you, and you have to try to overcome it.

  Question: Children wou1d p1ay with fire until their hands were burnt away if ______.

  A. they were given no warning beforehand

  B. they had never burnt themselves

  C. they had no sense of pain

  D. they were fearful of the fire

  解答:选C.

  本题是问文章中的一个细节。根据第一段的第二句话:“If fire did not hurt when it burnt,…”可以判断C项为正确答案。

本文转载链接:自学考试“高级英语”复习指导(四)

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