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自考“英语语法”基础材料(11)

2007-06-29 14:54   【 】【我要纠错

  第十一节     动词不定式

  1.概念

  不定式是动词的一种非谓语形式,是由不定式记号to加动词原形构成的。不定式具有动词的特征,即及物动词可带宾语,可被状语修饰,也可有语态的变化。

  当动词的不定式与另一个动词连用时,不定式通常要带to.

  I want to go to the station.   我想去车站。

  而在某些动词后面(如can, shall, do, will, may, need) to要省略,如:

  You may do the work.   你可以做这项工作。

  2.用法

  动词不定式在句子中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语及不定式复合结构。

  (1)不定式作主语

  不定式主语+谓语+其他成分

  To have a firm self-confidence is a first step toward a succesful negotiation.   有了坚定的自信是走向谈判成功的第一步。

  有的情况下,可用it作形式主语来代替不定式做主语

  It+谓语+不定式主语+其他成分

  It is risky to build too many hopes upon his promise.  对他的承诺寄以太大的希望是危险的。

  It is impossible to get him to understand what I mean.   不可能让他懂得我的意思。

  (2)不定式作宾语

  The majority of our members consented to raise the dues.   大多数会员同意增加会费。

  The supermarkets owner planned to postpone the grand opening until Saturday.   自选商场所有者计划把大减价持续到星期六。

  The analysis seeks to identify the strengths,  weaknesses,  opportunities and threats.   本分析在于证实力量、弱点、机遇和风险。

  (3)不定式作表语

  His job was to examine cars to make sure that they were not smuggling anything into the country.   他的工作是检查汽车,确保不使任何物品走私入境。

  The manager seems to be losing his grip on the business. 经理似乎正在失去对企业的控制。

  A major function of accounting is to provide periodic reports to manager and owners outsiders.   会计的一项主要职能是向管理人员和所有者提供定期报告。

  The house is to be sold by auction.   这幢房子将被拍卖。

  The first is to evaluate the adequacy of the predetermined.  首要任务是评价预料的准确性。

  (4)不定式作定语

  We must think of ways to combat the rising prices.   我们应该想办法克服物价上涨。

  As a teacher, I have the ability to suggest books, to point out a pathway.   作为一个教师,我有能力推荐书籍,指点迷津。

  The shopkeeper offered me a credit note to be used to buy goods in his shop.   商店老板给了我一个信用证,用来在他的店里购货。

  (5)不定式作状语

  In order to improve business, the store owner decreased his prices.   店主降低价格以便使营业好转。

  To be perfectly flank, I do not see what she has to be vain about.   坦率地说,我看不出她有什么值得骄傲之处。

  To illustrate how the heart sends blood around the body, the doctor described how a pump works.   为了说明心脏如何把血液输送到全身,医生描绘了泵的工作。

  We were fortunate to have had him at our company.   聘请他在我们公司工作是我们公司的幸运。

  You must be aggressive to be a door-to-door salesman.   想当好推销员必须有闯劲。

  (6)不定式复合结构

  The valve opened for air to enter.  打开阀门以便进气。

  There is a lot of work for us to do.  我们有许多工作要做。

  There are a lot of problems for the manager to cope with. 经理有许多问题要处理。

  She brought the balance sheet for the manager to sign.  她拿来资产负债表让经理签字。

  He brought the ledger for me to check.   他把总账拿来让我查账。

  It's too late for us to start. 太晚了,我们不好动身。

  I brought something for you to look at.   我带来东西给你看。

  Here's a pen for you to sign the contract with.  给你这支笔来签合同。

  (7)带疑问词的不定式

  疑问代词who,what,which和疑问副词when,why,how,where的后面可以接不定式,构成一个名词性短语,可在句中作主语、表语、宾语或定语。

  ① What to do next will be discussed at today's meeting.     下一步该怎么做将在今天会上讨论。

  ② The question is how to fulfil our production plan as soon as possible.   问题是如何尽早完成生产计划。

  ③ It is not decided yet whether to go there or not.   是否去那儿尚未决定。

  ④ The question is how to send the goods.   问题是如何把货物运去。

  ⑤ You had better find out where to change your money.  你最好找一下换钱的地方。

  ⑥ He will tell you which way to go.   他会告诉你走哪条路。

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