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自考“英语语法”基础材料(14)

2007-06-29 14:58   【 】【我要纠错

  第十四节   名词从句

  名词从句是指在句子中起名词作用的从句,名词从句有主语从句、表语从句、宾语

  从句及同位语从句。引导名词从句的关联词有:

  连词,如:that, if, whether.

  关系代词,如:which, what, who.

  关系副词,如:when, where, how, why.

  1.主语从句,即名词从句做主语

  主语从句有三类:  (1)what主语从句;  (2)that主语从句;  (3)连接代词who,whom, whose, which和连接副词when, where, how, why引导的主语从句。

  What caused the accident is a mystery.   造成事故的原因还是个谜。

  What they want are financial aids.    他们想要经济援助。

  That time is money has been realized in the West.   时间就是金钱,这在西方已实现了。

  That she will refuse the offer seems unlikely.  她会拒绝这个提议似乎不可能。

  When and where the exhibition opens is written in the announcement.  展览会在什么时候、什么地方开幕,通知里写着。

  Why he shot her is a complete mystery.    他为什么打死她完全是个谜。

  How he did it doesn't matter.  这事他是怎样做的,无关紧要。

  Which plan is better is clear now.   哪个计划更好,现在清楚了。

  有时,把连接词或关系副词引出的主语从句放在句子后面,用it作形式上的主语,如:

  It was obvious that the driver could not control his car.  显然,司机已不能控制他的车了。

  ( That the driver could not control his car was obvious)。

  It is a wonder ( that ) you didn't lose your way in the dark.   真奇怪,黑暗中你没有迷路。

  2.表语从句,即名词从句作表语,位于主句的连系动词之后,如:

  The legal reason for maintaining payroll accounting records is that employers are required by federal, state and local laws to do so.  保留工薪会计记录是由于联邦、州、地方政府的法律要求。

  It seems that he has never been paid the momey.   他好像还没付钱。

  Raw material is what we are urgently in need of.  我们急需原料。

  This term is what we are against.   这一条正是我们所反对的。

  That's what you should do.   那是你应该做的。

  Things in their firm were not as they seemed to be.   他们公司的情况并不是表面那个样子。

  That is why we decided to put the meeting off.   这就是我们决定推迟会议的原因。

  This was just when our company was being formed.   那正是我们公司成立的时候。

  3.宾语从句:即名词从句作宾语,它可以是谓语动词的宾语,也可以是动词不定式,分词或动名词的宾语。

  The fruitpickers migrated to wherever they could find work.   摘果子的人会移民到任何可以找到工作的地方。

  In his letter, Johnson told how grateful he was for the loan.   在信中约翰逊对贷款表示感谢。

  He specifies how much he wishes to remit,  who the sum should be paid to.   他详细说明汇款钱数和收款人。

  Could you tell me where the office is ?   请告诉我办公室在哪儿。

  They gave to whoever came to the conference an introduction.   凡是出席大会的,他们都给一份介绍。

  I‘ll read whichever report you recommend.   你推荐的什么报告我都要看。

  We could give you whatever help you need.   你想要什么帮助,我们都可以给你。

  The motor company revealed reluctantly that there were defects in their new cars.   汽车公司不得不承认他们的新车有毛病。

  Your report is quite all right except that the organization is somewhat loose.   你的报告写得不错,只是组织得不够紧凑。

  He often thought of how he could help others.   他经常在想如何去帮助别人。

  引导宾语从句的连词that有时可以省略,如:

  Saying he was busy, he went away in a hurry.   他说他很忙,即匆忙走了。

  4.  同位语从句:即名词从句作同位语,它在句中作某一名词的同位语。用that引导(有时用whether引导)。

  Another approach recognizes that people will act only when they have a reasonable expectation that their actions will lead to desired goals.   另一种方法发现只有当人们觉得他们的行为会达到预期的目的时他们才会行动。

  Several insurance companies have now made the decision that they should withdraw fiom the American market.   几家保险公司现在已经决定退出美国市场。

  I now regret having made a promise that I would join in the scheme.   我现在后悔答应参加该计划的事。

  A suggestion that they should postpone the discussion was accepted by the majority.   大多数人接受了推迟讨论。

  There was little probability that they would succeed.   他们的成功的可能性很小。

  She went to the meeting on the supposition that people would not ask her questions.   她参加了会,认为人们不会向她提问题。

  It is a certainty that they will carry out their undertakings.   他们肯定会进行他们的事业。

本文转载链接:自考“英语语法”基础材料(14)

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