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自考“英语语法”基础材料(15)

2007-06-29 14:59   【 】【我要纠错

  第十五节   定语从句

  定语从句在句子中作定语,它修饰句子中的某一名词或代词,引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词who,whose,whom,which,that;关系副词when,where,why等。

  关系代词和关系副词除用来引导定语从句外,还可代表从句修饰的先行词,在从句中作主语、宾语、定语和状语。

  1.关系代词作主语

  关系代词在从句中作主语时,它的谓语动词在人称和数上应与所说明的词一致。

  Only laws that force companies to reform will clear the dangerous vapour from air.  只有用法律迫使该公司进行改革,才能从空气中清除有毒气体。

  Perhaps you could tell me the name of the shop which might stock this particular model.  你也许能告诉我存有这种特殊型号的商品的店名。

  A small business or company may employ only one bookkeeper who records all of the financial data by hand.   一个小的企业或公司可以只雇用一个簿记员用手工操作来记录全部的财务数据。

  2.关系代词作宾语

  The price he quoted for the car was essentially the same as that of his competitor.   他的汽车报价大体上和他的对手相近似。

  Don't swallow everything the advertisements say.   不要轻信广告上说的每一件事。

  3.关系代词作状语

  The only reason why we desire goods or service is to satisfy our wants.   我们需求商品或劳务的唯一理由是为了满足我们的需要。

  The retail store where I often buy goods is operated by his father.   我经常购买商品的那个零售店是由他父亲经营的。

  We still remember the days when we studied in the university.   我们仍记得在大学学习的那些日子。

  关系代词及关系副词在从句中的作用可归纳如下:

  who,指人,在从句中作主语。

  whom,指人,在从句中作宾语,在限定性定语从句中一般省略。

  关系代词      whose,指人,在从句中作定语。

  which,指物,在从句中作主语和宾语。

  that,指物,也可指人,在从句中作主语或宾语。

  when,指时间,在从句中作状语。

  关系副词      why,指原因,在从句中作状语。

  where,指地点,在从句中作状语。

  限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句

  限定性定语从句是指先行词不可少的定语,它与主句的关系十分密切,若将这种定  语从句省去,则主句的意思就不完整,且这种定语从句不可用逗号与主句分开。

  As for instnanents, only those that are really needed should be bought.   至于仪器,只买那些确实需要的。

  All you have to do is to push the button.   你只需按电钮就行了。

  Is there a shop around where we can get fruit ?   周围有卖水果的商店吗?

  非限定性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,即使省去了也不影响主句的意思,因此常用逗号把它与主句分开。

  They have invited me to visit their factory, which is very kind of them.   承蒙他们的好意,他们邀请我们参观他们的工厂。

  They turned a deaf ear to our demands, which enraged all of us.   他们对我们的要求充耳不闻,这使我们都很生气。

  The activity was postponed, which was exactly what we wanted.   这项活动延期了,这正是我们的愿望。

  4.“介词+关系代词”结构

  引导定语从句时,that和who不能用于介词之后,能用于“介词+关系代词”引导定语从句的代词只有which(指物)和whom(指人)。那么,介词的选择将是一个难点,介词选择的依据是:

  (1)介词与定语从句的先行词是一种习惯性的搭配。如:

  The farm on which I once worked has taken on a new look.(比较:I once worked on the farm.)   我曾经工作过的那家农场呈现出新面貌。

  (2)介词与定语从句中的动词是一种习惯性的搭配。如:

  Whds the man with whom our teacher is shaking hands ?  ( 比较: Who (m) is our teacher shaking hands with ?)   那个正同我们老师握手的人是谁?

  (3)介词与定语从句中的形容词一起构成一种习惯性的短语。如:

  Ours is a beautiful country, of which we are greatly proud. ( 比较: We ate greatly proud of our country. )    我们的国家是个美丽的国家,我们很为她自豪。

  (4)表示“所有关系”或“整体中的部分”时,用介词of.如:

  This is a family of three children, all of whom are studying music.

  I have tried on three caps, none of which fits me well.  我试戴了三顶帽子,没有一顶合适。

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