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自考英语(二)复习笔记(2)

2006-12-05 10:54   【 】【我要纠错

  重点语法知识讲解

  1.动词的时态和语态

  动词的时态和语态一览表

时态
语态
一般现在时   一般过去时   一般将来时  
主动
被动  
do
are done  
did
were done  
will do
will be done  
   现在进行时   过去进行时   将来进行时  
主动
被动  
are doing are being done   were doing
were being done  
will be doing  
   现在完成时   过去完成时   将来完成时  
主动
被动  
have done
have been done  
had done
had been done  
will have done
will have been done  
   现在完成进行时        
主动
被动  
have been doing        

  1.1 现在完成时

  发生在过去的动作一直持续到现在,或对现在仍有影响。

  现在完成时的标志: so far, by now/ up to now,for three years, since 1995, in the past two decades

  1.2 过去完成时

  过去的过去。

  1)said, reported, thought 等引导的间接引语中。

  He missed the train.

  He said he had missed the train.

  2)hardly…when, no sooner… than句型中表示先发生的动作

  No sooner had he got up than he received the call.

  3)与过去事实相反的虚拟语气中

  If I had tried harder, I would have won.

  I wish I had done better in the exam.

  1.3 完成进行时

  从过去一直持续到现在,没有间断。汉语提示语:一直

  The water has been running the whole night.

  1.4 过去时

  过去某一具体时间发生的事,不考虑与现在的关系。

  过去时的标志:yesterday, in 1995, last week,in the nineteenth century,five years ago 等等。

  2.非谓语动词

  2.1 非谓语动词一览表

非谓语动词   形式   意义  
现在分词        
一 般 式   doing   主动 , 正在进行  
被 动 式   being done   被动 , 正在进行  
完成主动式   having done   主动 , 已经完成  
完成被动式   having been done   被动 , 已经完成  
过去分词   done   被动 , 已经完成  
动词不定式         
一 般 式   to do   主动 , 将要进行  
被 动 式   to be done   被动 , 将要进行  
完成主动式   to have done   主动 , 已经完成  
进行主动式   to be doing   主动 , 正在进行  

  2.2. 非谓语动词作状语

  动词不定式:1)目的状语;2)结果状语

  I came here to meet you. (目的)

  He hurried to the rail station only to miss the train. (结果)

  分词:1) 伴随状语;2)原因状语;3)条件状语 4)让步状语;5)时间状语

  Walking along the street, he met his old friend. (时间)

  Being very tired, my father didn’t go out with us. (原因)

  Made by hand, the silk shirt is very expensive. (原因)

  Seen from the space, the earth looks like a blue ball. (条件)

  2.3 非谓语动词,状语从句和独立结构

  1) Having done their homework, the children began to play. (分词作状语)

  2) After having done their homework, the children began to play. (连词+分词)

  3) After they had done their homework, the children began to play. (状语从句)

  4) With homework done, the children began to play. (独立结构)

  2.4 非谓语动词作定语

  1) If there is no choice, there is no decision ___ (make)。 (to be made)

  2) Do you know the man ____ ( stand) in front of the house? (standing)

  3) The question ____ (discuss) at the moment is very important. (being discussed)

  4) The bridge ____ (build) in the 1950s is still in good condition. (built)

  2.5 动名词和动词不定式

  作主语和表语

  动名词作主语/表语表示一般、抽象的情况;动词不定时作主语表示具体某次的情况。

  Rising early is good for health.

  To rise early tomorrow is difficult for me.

  It is difficult for me to rise early tomorrow.

  My biggest wish is to go abroad.

  Seeing is believing.

  作宾语

  接动名词作宾语的动词:

  admit, acknowledge, avoid, appreciate, consider, delay, enjoy, escape, excuse, forgive, finish, include, involve, mind, put off, postpone, suggest, feel like, look forward to, be used to, be accustomed to, etc.

  接动词不定式作宾语的动词:

  want, tend, intend, pretend, hope, plan, expect, be supposed to, seem, be likely to, used to, be willing to, desire, force, prefer, start, begin

  接动名词和动词不定式有不同含义的动词:

  1) forget, remember, regret

  2) stop, continue

  3) need/ want

  4) allow doing/ allow sb to do

  (1) How can I forget meeting you for the first time?

  Sorry, I forgot to lock the door.

  (2) I can’t stop laughing. Can you stop to give me a hand?

  (3) The grass needs cutting. The grass needs to be cut.

  (4) We don’t allow smoking here. You are not allowed to smoke here.

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