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自考“英语(二)“应试指导(一)

2006-10-09 14:21   【 】【我要纠错

  主要内容

  o 试卷分析和最新出题思路

  o 重点语法

  o 备考要诀及学习方法

  最新英语(二)试卷主观题统计数据

  考题        满分          平均分

  o 单词拼写     10      2.48

  o 词形填空     10      2.17

  o 汉译英        15       5.53

  o 英译汉        15       10.75

  o  总分         50           20.93

  最新出题思路

  (1)与课文的关系

  往年与课文有关的大题:第一、第四、第五和第六大题

  近年与课文有关的大题:第四和第六大题

  建议:熟读课文,掌握课文中的大纲词汇,特别留意课文中体现重点语法和经典句型的句子。

  (2) 与课文无关的大题:第二、第三、第七大题。

  文章选材:主要涉及社会文化、风俗习惯、教育、历史、和生活常识等内容。

  建议:广泛阅读此类题材的文章,最好是中英文对照版本。推荐杂志:《英语沙龙》,《大学英语》,《英语学习》。

  每道题的考点:

  第一题:词汇语法题

  主要考点:定语从句、名词性从句的引导词;状语从句的连接词;词汇辨析;固定搭配;常用句型。近年来词汇题比重增加。

  建议:通过学习教材上下册,熟练掌握基本语法,背熟大纲词汇,加强同义词、近义词、和形似词的比较,牢记固定搭配。

  历年试题举例:

  1. At the end of 1994 the British government introduced new measures to help ____domestic workers from abuse by their employers.

  [A] protect [B] suspect [C] expect [D]inspect             A

  2. I'm wondering why he hasn't turned ___ at the meeting.

  [A] down [B] up  [C] out  [D] over               B

  3. By using both ears one can tell the direction ___ a sound

  comes.

  [A] in which [B] from which[C] over which[D] with which   B

  第二题:完型填空题

  主要考点:除了第一大题已提到的考点外,还注重考察介词、连词、副词、代词等虚词的用法。近年来词汇题比例有所增加。

  建议:“上看下看,左看右看”,即充分利用上下文提供的信息答题。

  历年试题举例:

  … Colter was excited, so he told  17  about the place.  18  , the other people did not believe him.

  17.  [A] the other  [B] others          B

  [C] another   [D] each other

  18. [A] Then      [B] However        B

  [C] Therefore  [D] Consequently

  第三题:阅读理解题

  主要特点:文章体裁多为论述文,偶有记叙文,主要涉及文化、教育、风俗、历史、人物故事、社会问题、科普常识等内容,不涉及太专业的内容。文章平均长度为300-350词/篇,总阅读量为1500-2000词。问题以细节题为主,其次是总结题,偶尔有一两道词汇题和推理题。题目的顺序和文章的顺序大体对应。

  第四题:单词拼写题

  往年考题:多选用考纲词表中的常用词,包括中学词汇,平均词长为6个字母。

  最新特点:最近一次考题中单词拼写几乎全部出自下册课文,以A课文为主, 单词长度显著增加,平均词长为9个字母,有5个单词词长超过10个字母,出现了两个超纲词,无一中学词汇。

  最新考题举例

  36. accompany (1A)       37. boundary (2A)

  38. capture (14A)      39. decline (10A)

  40. employee (4A)      41. feasible (8A)

  42. heartbreaking (14A)     43. grateful

  44. increasingly (6A)      45. junction (15A)

  46. loyalty (10A)       47. moderate (8B)

  48. overwhelming (10A)     49. nominate (10B)

  50. participant (5A)      51. persistently (14A)

  52. queue (14A)       53. spontaneous (5A)

  54. reinforce (12B)      55. undertake (13A)

  第五题:词形填空题

  主要考点:谓语动词(时态、语态、虚拟语气、主谓一致),非谓语动词(动词不定式、现在分词、过去分词、动名词),形容词比较级,词性转换。

  建议:掌握扎实的语法知识,通过大量做题来消化这些语法知识,力求做到举一反三,触类旁通。

  历年试题举例

  1. Cancer research ___ (make) all over the world in the past twenty years.    (has been made)

  2. The more stress you are under, the ___ (likely) you are to catch a cold.   ( more likely)

  3. It seems reasonable to assume that, other things ___ (be) equal, they would prefer single to shared rooms.  (being)

  4. These electric appliances are all similar in construction but each one is  ____ (specialize) in its function. (special)

  第六题:汉译英

  主要考点:全面考察词汇、语法和句型的运用能力,多考虚拟语气、比较级、疑问句、强调句和一些固定表达方式。最新考题中有三道题直接出自下册课文。

  阅卷要求:主要语法错误(如动词时态、语态、虚拟语气、主谓一致、否定、疑问以及其他句型错误)或重要用词错误扣1分;非基本语法错误(如介词、代词、冠词、大写、标点等错误)每两处扣1分;拼写错误每两处扣1分,本大题总扣分不超过3分。

  最新试题举例

  68.一个具有文学艺术欣赏力的人能胜任这项工作。

  选自下册第9单元A课文后Word Study中appreciation的一个例句。主要考查定语从句和be qualified for 的用法。

  69.随着研究技术变得更加先进,用于实验的动物数量将会大大减少。

  选自下册第11单元A课文最后一段的第一句话。主要考查as引导时间状语从句,表示“随着”。

  70.那位生物学家相信某些动物物种正受到灭绝的威胁。

  根据下册第14单元A课文后的翻译练习中的第6题有所改动。原话为“他相信某些植物物种正受到灭绝的威胁。”

  第七题:英译汉

  主要特点:综合考查词汇和语法,注意定语从句、状语从句、比较级、倒装句的理解。

  阅卷要求:根据总体印象打分,分为15-13分,12-10分,9-7分,6-4分,3-1分五个档次。只要译文大体准确通顺即可得分,不要求译得非常漂亮。

  II. 重点语法复习

  动词时态和语态

  非谓语动词

  虚拟语气

  定语从句和名词性从句

  1. 动词主要时态和语态表

  一般现在时    一般过去时     一般将来时

  主动: do     did      will do

  被动: are done   were done     will be done

  现在进行时    过去进行时     将来进行时

  主动: are doing   were doing     will be doing

  被动: are being done  were being done

  现在完成时    过去完成时     将来完成时

  主动: have done   had done     will have done

  被动: have been done  had been done

  现在完成进行时

  主动: have been doing

  动词主要时态的意义及运用

  o 现在完成时,过去完成时和将来完成时

  英语提示语:up to now, so far, for three years, since 1995, over past ten years, by the end of this week, by the year of 1995

  汉语提示语:已经,早已,了

  e.g. We haven't met each other since last year.

  By the end of this week, we'll have finished the task.

  o 现在完成进行时

  从过去一直持续到现在,没有间断。

  汉语提示语:一直

  e.g. The water has been running the whole night.

  过去完成时

  said, reported, thought 等引导的间接引语中。

  e.g. He missed the train. He said he had missed the train.

  2) hardly…when, no sooner… than

  e.g. No sooner had he got up than he received the call.

  3) 与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的条件状语从句中

  e.g If I had tried harder, I would have won.

  I wish I had done better in the exam.

  历年考题中的动词时态和语态

  1.So far, Irving ___ (live) in New York City for ten years.   (has been lived)

  2.The patient ___ (send) to another hospital before we got there.  (had been sent)

  3.The second half of the nineteenth century ___ (witness) the first extended translation into English of the writings of Eliphas Levi. (witnessed)

  2. 非谓语动词

  动词主要时态和语态一览表

  非谓语动词     形式     意义

  现在分词

  一 般 式     doing     主动, 正在进行

  被 动 式     being done    被动, 正在进行

  完成主动式     having done    主动, 已经完成

  完成被动式     having been done  被动, 已经完成

  过去分词     done     被动, 已经完成

  动词不定式

  一 般 式     to do     主动,将要进行

  被 动 式     to be done    被动, 将要进行

  完成主动式     to have done    主动, 已经完成

  进行主动式     to be doing    主动, 正在进行

  非谓语动词作状语

  o动词不定式:1)目的状语;2)结果状语

  e.g. I came here to meet you. (目的)

  He hurried to the rail station only to miss the train. (结果)

  o分词:1) 伴随状语;2)原因状语;3)条件状语 4)让步状语;5)时间状语

  e.g. Walking along the street, he met his old friend.   (时间)

  Being very tired, my father didn't go out with us.  (原因)

  Made by hand, the silk shirt is very expensive.    (原因)

  Seen from the space, the earth looks like a blue ball.  (条件)

  非谓语动词,状语从句和独立结构

  Having done their homework, the children began to play. (分词作状语)

  After having done their homework, the children began to play. (连词+分词)

  After they had done their homework, the children began to play. (状语从句)

  With homework done, the children began to play.  (独立结构)

  非谓语动词作定语

  If there is no choice, there is no decision ___ (make)。 (to be made)

  Do you know the man ____ ( stand) in front of the house? (standing)

  The question ____ (discuss) at the moment is very important. (being discussed)

  The bridge ____ (build) in the 1950s is still in good condition.  (built)

  动名词和动词不定式

  o 作主语和表语

  动名词作主语/表语表示一般、抽象的情况;动词不定时作主语表示具体某次的情况。

  e.g  Rising early is good for health.

  To rise early tomorrow is difficult for me.

  It is difficult for me to rise early tomorrow.

  My biggest wish is to go abroad.

  Seeing is believing.

  o 作宾语

  接动名词作宾语的动词:

  admit, acknowledge, avoid, deny, consider, enjoy, escape,

  excuse, forgive, finish, suggest, mind, include, involve, delay,

  put off, postpone, feel like, look forward to, be used to, be

  accustomed to, etc.

  接动词不定式作宾语的动词:

  want, tend, intend, pretend, hope, plan, expect, be supposed to,

  seem, be likely to, used to, be willing to, desire, force, prefer, start, begin

  接动名词和动词不定式有不同含义的动词:

  forget, remember, regret

  stop, continue

  need/ want

  allow doing/ allow sb to do

  1) How can I forget meeting you for the first time?

  Sorry, I forgot to lock the door.

  2) I can't stop laughing.  Can you stop to give me a hand?

  3)The grass needs cutting. The grass needs to be cut.

  4)We don't allow smoking here. You are not allowed to smoke here.

  历年考题中的非谓语动词

  1. A man cannot be really happy if what he enjoys ___ (do) is ignored by society as of no value or importance.  (doing)

  2. Anyone ___(want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics. (wanting)

  3. It is a well-known fact that a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes ___ (control) his direction. (to control)

  4. As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals ___ (use) in experiments may decrease.  (used)

  5. A life ___ (live) without fantasy and daydreaming is a really poor life indeed. (lived)

  6. This poem, if ___ (translate) word for word into Chinese, will make no sense.  (translated)

  7. They may have their passports _____ (remove), making leaving or “escaping” actually impossible.  (removed)

  8.  Her body, with hands and feet ____ (bind), was discovered by a traveler early in the morning.   (bound)

  3. 虚拟语气

  第一大类:非真实条件下的虚拟语气

          时间         从句         主句

  与现在事实相反    did/ were      should/could/would + do

  与过去事实相反    had done       should/could/would + have done

  与将来事实相反    were to do     should/could/would + do

                      should do

  第二大类:从句中用过去时或过去完成时的虚拟语气

  would rather + 从句

  wish + 从句

  if only + 从句

  as if/ as though + 从句

  It's time + 从句

  第三大类:从句中用should加动词原形的虚拟语气,其中should可省略。

  suggest, propose, advise, move(动议), ask, order, require, request, desire, insist, prefer 等动词后接的宾语从句;

  suggestion, proposal, advice, motion, order, requirement, request, desire, preference等名词后的同位语从句;

  3. important, necessary, essential, imperative, desirable, advisable, preferable 等形容词用在it is … that…句型中;

  4. lest, in case, for fear that 等引导的从句中。

  历年考题中的虚拟语气

  If it hadn't been for your help, we ___ (be) in real trouble.   (would have been)

  He would have given you more help, if he ___ (not be) so busy.  (had not been)

  It is high time that we ___ (take) firm measures to protect our environment. (took)

  It was imperative that students ___ (finish) their papers before July 1st.   (should finish/ finish)

  4. 定语从句和名词性从句

  定语从句:限制性和非限制性定语从句

  引导定语从句

  1)关系代词(在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语):which, that, who, whom, whose

  2)关系副词(在定语从句中作状语):when, where, why, how

  名词性从句

  名词性从句:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句

  引导名词性从句:

  1)主从连词(不在从句中作任何成分):that, whether, if

  2)连接代词(在从句中作主语、宾语、表语):what, which, who, whom, whose, whatever, whoever…

  3)连接副词(在从句中作状语):when, where, why, how

  “ 定语从句和同位语从句的区别

  “ The story (that) he told me may not be true.

  “ The story that he has made a fortune may not be true.

  2. 什么时候用介词+which 的形式?

  “ The place which I visited last week is very beautiful.

  “ The place in which I used to live is very beautiful.

  3. which 和 as 引导非限制性定语从句

  “ He is easy to get angry, which is well known.

  “ He is easy to get angry, as everybody knows.

  历年考题中的定语从句和名词性从句

  1. Studies have shown ___ teenagers often suffer from depression.

  [A] that [B] which [C] in which [D] in that         A

  2. It is a well-known fact ___ a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes to control his direction.

  [A] that [B] if  [C] when [D] whether       A

  3. Very few people understood this contract, ___ was very obscure.

  [A] the language  [B] the language of which      B

  [C] all it said   [D] which it had said

  备考要诀

  o 重视课文,英语一考上册,英语二以下册A课文为主,但是上册课文的语法和词汇是学习下册的基础。

  o 吃透重点语法:非谓语动词、动词时态和语态、虚拟语气、比较级、定语从句,等。

  o 背单词要讲究技巧,以大纲词汇为准,不要孤立地背单词,以词组为主,重视搭配;

  o 加强阅读,选择难度适当的阅读材料,重在训练阅读技巧,提高速度和效率。

  推荐材料:

  1)大学英语自学教程》(上下册),高远主编,高教出版社。

  2)《大学英语自学教程——自学与自测指导》(上下册),高远主编,北航出版社。

  3)自考大纲

  4)全国高等自学考试英语(一)和英语(二)模拟试卷与应试指导》高远主编,高等教育出版社。

  结束语

  Before God we are equally wise-equally foolish.  (Albert Einstein)

本文转载链接:自考“英语(二)“应试指导(一)

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