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自考英语国家概况精讲系列第四章

2006-05-16 15:25  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错

    Chapter 4

    第四章

    Transition to the Modern Age (1455-1688)

    向现代英国的过渡

    I. Transition to the Modern Age (1455-1485)

    向现代英国的过渡(1455年-1485年)

    The Wars of Rose

    玫瑰战争

    The name Wars of the Roses was refer to the battles between the House of Lancaster, symbolized by the read rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white, from 1455 to 1485. Henry Tudor, descendant of Duke of Lancaster won victory at Bosworth Fireld in 1485 and put ht country under the rule of the Tudors. From these Wars, English feudalism received its death blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened.

    玫瑰战争是指,从1455年到1485年,以红玫瑰为象征的兰开斯特大家族和以白玫瑰为象征的约克家族之间战争的普遍接受的名称。1485年,兰开斯特家族的后代亨利都铎取得了博斯沃恩战役的胜利,建立了都铎王朝。这些战争使英国的封建主义受到致命打击,贵族阶层受到了削弱。

    II. The English Reformation

    英国的宗教改革

    Henry VIII was above all responsible for the religious reform of the church. There were three main causes: a desire for change and reform in the church had been growing for many years and now, encouraged by the success of Martin Luther, many people believed its time had come; the privilege and wealth of the clergy were resented; and Henry needed money.

    最重要的是,亨利八世负责进行教会的宗教改革。改革原因有三个主要方面:改革教会的渴望已有多年,现在又受马丁路德成功的鼓舞,许多人认为时机已到;人们痛恨教职人员的威望和财富;亨利需要钱。

    The reform began as a struggle for a divorce and ended in freedom from the Papacy. Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon but the Pope refused. Henry‘s reforms was to get rid of the English Church’s connection with the Pope, and to make an independent Church of England. He made this break with Rome gradually between 1529 and 1534. He dissolved all of England‘s monasteries and nunneries because they were more loyal to the Pope than to their English kings. The laws such as the Act of succession of 1534 and the Act of Supremacy of 1535 made his reform possible. He established the church of England as the national church of the country, and he made himself the supreme head of the church of England.

    改革以争取离婚而开始,以脱离教皇而告终。亨利八世欲与阿拉贡的凯瑟琳离婚,但是教皇拒绝了。亨利改革的目的是摆脱英国教会与教皇的联系,成立独立的英格兰教会。1529年至1534年间逐渐地与罗马脱离了关系。他解散了所有英国的修道院和修女院,因为后者对教皇比对英国国王更忠诚。1534年的《继位法》和1535年的《至尊法案》使改革具有了可行性。1535年他获“英格兰教会最高首脑”之称号。

    Henry VIII‘s reform stressed the power of the monarch and certainly strengthened Henry’s position; Parliament had never done such a long and important piece of work before, its importance grew as a result. His attack on the Pope‘s power encouraged many critics of abuses of the Catholic Church. England was moving away form Catholicism towards protestaintism.

    改革的三大影响:亨利的改革强调了君主权力,自然加强了亨利的地位;议会以往从未做过如此漫长而重要的工作,自然其重要性也有所加强;他对教皇权力的打击鼓舞许多人批评指责天主教会,并希望从天主教转向新教。

    III. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

    伊莉莎白一世(1558年-1603年)

    Elizabeth's religious reform and her foreign policy

    伊莉莎白的宗教改革和外交政策

    Elizabeth's religious reform was a compromise of views. She broke Mary's ties with Rome and restored her father's independent Church of England, i.e. keeping to Catholic doctrines and practices but to be free of the Papal control. He religious settlement was unacceptable to both the extreme Protestants known as Puritans and to ardent Catholics.

    For nearly 30 years Elizabeth successfully played off against each other the two great Catholic powers, France and Spain, and prevented England from getting involved in any major European conflict. Through her marriage alliances which were never materialized, Elizabeth managed to maintain a friendly relationship with France. So England wad able to face the danger from Spain.

    伊莉莎白的宗教改革是各种观点的妥协。她中断玛丽与罗马的关系,恢复父王独立的英格兰教会,也就是说保持天主教教条及习俗,但不受教皇控制。她的宗教和解既不被极端的新教徒(即清教徒)所接受,也不为虔诚的天主教徒所接受。

    近30年的时间,伊莉莎白成功地令两大天主教强国法国和西班牙互相斗杀,从而免于英国卷入任何主要的欧洲国的冲突。通过她从未具体化的联姻,伊莉莎白设法与法国维持友好关系,因此英国能面对来自西班牙的危险。

    IV. The English Renaissance

    英国文艺复兴

    Distinctive features of the English Renaissance

    英国文艺复兴的特点

    1) English culture was revitalized not so much directly by the classics as by contemporary Europeans under the influence of the classics;

    2) England as an insular country followed a course of social and political history which was to a great extent independent of the course of history elsewhere in Europe;

    3) Owing to the great genius of the 14th century poet Chaucer, the native literature was sufficiently vigorous and experienced in assimilating for foreign influences without being subjected by them;

    4) English Renaissance coincided with the Reformation in England.

    英国文艺复兴的五个特点:1)英国文化的复兴并不是直接通过古典作品,崦是通过受古典作品影响同时代的欧洲人实现的;2)英格兰作为一个与大陆隔离的国家,其社会历史进程很大程度上独立于欧洲其它国家;3)由于14世纪伟大的天才诗人乔叟的出现,英国本国文学得以蓬勃发展,能够在吸收外国文学影响的同时,并未处于从属地位;4)英国文艺复兴文学首先是艺术的,其次才是哲学的和学术的;5)文艺复兴和英格兰的宗教改革在时间上有所交叉。

    VI. The Civil Wars and their consequences

    Because of the absolute rule of Charles, the confrontation between Charles I and the parliament developed into the civil war. The war began on August 22,1642 and ended in 1651. Charles I was condemned to death.

    The English Civil War is also called the Puritan Revolution. It has been seen as a conflict between the parliament and the King, and a conflict between economic interests of the Crown. The economic interests of the urban middle classed coincided with their religious ( Puritan) ideology while the Crown‘s traditional economic interests correspondingly allied with Anglican religious belief. The English Civil War not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shook the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe. It is generally regarded as the beginning of modern world history.

    由于查尔斯的“君权神授”统治权,他与议会的对质发展成了内战。战争开始于1642年8月22日,结束于1651年。最后查尔斯被处死。

    英国内战又称为清教徒革命。这是议会和国王间的冲突,也是城市中产阶级的经济利益与皇室传统经济利益之间的冲突。城市中产阶级经济利益刚好与他们的宗教(清教)思想吻合,相应地,皇室传统的经济利益则与圣公会教的宗教信仰相结合在一起。英国内战不仅推翻了英国的封建制度,而且动摇了欧洲封建经济的基础。英国内战通常被看作是现代世界史的开端。

    The Restoration

    王政复辟

    When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son, Richard, the regime began to collapse. One of Cromwell's generals George Monck, occupied London and arranged for new parliamentary elections. The Parliament thus was elected in 1660 resolved the crisis by asking the late King's son to return from his exile in France as king Charles II. It was called the Restoration.

    1658年奥利弗克伦威尔去世,他的儿子理查德继任护国公,政权立即开始瓦解。克伦威尔的一位将军乔治蒙克占领伦敦,安排新的议会选举。1660年选出的议会要求上一任国王的儿子长期流亡地法国回国作国王查尔斯二世,从而解决了危机。这就是所谓的王政复辟。

    The Glorious Revolution of 1688

    1688年光荣革命

    In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious vies. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.

    1685年查尔斯二世去世,由其弟詹姆斯二世继位。詹姆斯二世从小在欧洲流亡长大,是个天主教徒,他希望不放弃个人宗教信仰统治国家。但是1688的英国已不象40年前那样能容忍天主教徒当国王了。英国政客反对詹姆斯二世,他们呼吁信奉新教的国王,奥兰治亲王威谦入侵英国夺取王位。1688年11月15日威廉在托尔比登陆并占领伦敦。这一占领相对平静,既未流血也未处死国王,所以就称为“光荣革命”。

    The Gunpowder Plot of 1605

    1605年

    The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was the most famous of the Catholic conspiracies. On Nov. 5,1605, a few fanatical Catholics attempted to blow King James and his ministers up in the House of Parliament where Guy Fawkes had planted barrels of gun-powder in the cellars. The immediate result was the execution of Fawkes and his fellow-conspirators and imposition of severe anti-Catholic laws. The long-term result has been an annual celebration on Nov. 5, when a bonfire is lit to turn a guy and a firework display is arranged.

    1605年的火药阴谋案是最著名的天主教阴谋。1605年11月5日,几个狂热的天主教徒企图在议会大厦炸死国王和大臣,盖伊福克斯已在地窖放了炸药桶。结果是福克斯和同伙被立即处死,以及更严厉的反天主教法律的颁发。长斯结果是每年11月5日举行庆祝仪式,点燃火堆焚烧盖伊模拟像并燃放烟火。

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