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自考英语国家概况精讲系列第五章

2006-05-16 15:31  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错

    第五章

    The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (1688-1990)

    大英帝国的兴衰

    I. Whigs and Tories

    辉格党人和托利党人

    These two party names originated with the Glorious Revolution (1688)。

    这两个政党名称皆起源于1688年的光荣革命。

    The Whig were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for Nonconformists. The Whig were to form a coalition with dissident Tories in the mid-19th century and become the Liberal Party.

    辉格党人是指那些反对绝对王权,支持新教徒宗教自由权利的人。辉格党人在19世纪中叶与持不同意见的托利党人组盟组成自由党。

    The Tories were those who supported hereditary monarchy and were reluctant to remove kings. The Tories were the forerunners of the Conservative Party.

    托利党人是指那些支持世袭王权、不愿去除国王的人。托利党是保守党的前身。

    I. Agricultural Changes in the Late 18th Century

    18世纪末的农业革命

    During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the “open-field” system ended when the Enclosure Act was passed. The movement lasted for centuries. Agricultural enclosure had good as well as bad results:

    18世纪末、19世纪初的农业革命期间,随着《圈地法》的颁布,传统的“开放田地”制结束。圈地运动持续了将近一个多世纪。农业圈地运动的利弊共存:

    (1) Farms became bigger and bigger units as the great bought up the small;

    由于大农场兼并了小农场,农场成为越来越在的生产单位;

    (2) More vegetables, more milk and more dairy produce were consumed, and diet became more varied;

    人们消费的蔬菜,牛奶及奶制品越来越多,饮食种类愈加丰富;

    (3) Enclosure was a disaster for the tenants evicted from their lands by the enclosures. These peasant farmers were forced to look for work in towns. Enclosure led to mass emigration, particularly to the New World;

    圈地对佃家而言是场灾难,他们被赶出土地,被迫到城镇找工作。圈地运动导致了大规模的移民,尤其是移民至新大陆。

    (4) A new class hostility was introduced into rural relationships.

    农村关系中产生了新的阶级对立。

    II. The Industrial Revolution (1780-1830)

    工业革命(1780-1830)

    1.The industrial Revolution refers to the mechanisation of industry and the consequent changes in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    工业革命指的是17世纪末、18世纪初英国工业的机械化,以及因此而导致的社会结构和经济结构的变化。

    2.Britain was the first country to industrialize because of the following factors:

    英国成为第一个工业化的国家,原因如下:

    (1) Favourable geopraphical location. Britain was well placed geographically to participate in European and world trade;

    优越的地理位置:英国地理位置优越,适合参与欧洲与世界贸易;

    (2) Political stability. Britain had a peaceful society, which, after the 17th century, was increasingly interested in overseas trade and colonies. International trade brought wealth to merchants and city bankers. They and those who had done well out of new farming methods provided capital in large quantities for industralization.

    政治局面稳定。17世纪后的英国社会宁静,对海外贸易和殖民地兴趣日增。国际贸易给商人和城市银行家带来财富,他们加上由于新农作法而发家的人们为工业化提供了大笔资金。

    (3) Good foundation in economy. The limited monarchy which resulted from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 ensured that the powerful economic interests in the community could exert their influence over Government policy.

    1688年光荣革命限制了君主的权力,这使得强大的经济利益集团能对议会政策施加影响。

    (4) It was a country in which the main towns were never too far from seaports, or from rivers, which could distribute their products.

    英国的主要城镇皆靠近海港或河流,货物运送便利。

    (5) Britain had many rivers, which were useful for transport but also for water and steam power. Britain also had useful mineral resources.

    英国许多河流不仅用于交通,还提供水力及蒸汽动力。英国还有可用的矿产资源。

    (6) British engineers had sound training as craftsmen.

    英国工程师为训练有素的手工艺人。

    (7) The inventors were respected. They solved practical problems.

    发明家受人尊重,他们解决了实际难题。

    (8) Probably laissez faire and “Protestant work ethic” helped.

    很可能利益于“放手干”及“新教工作道德”。

    (9) England, Scotland, and Wales formed a customs union after 1707 and this included Ireland after 1807. So the national market was not hindered by internal customs barriers.

    1707年后,英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士形成关税联盟,1807年后爱尔兰加入。因此,全国市场不再受阴于内部的关税障碍。

    (10) The enclosures and other improvements in agriculture made their contributions by providing food for the rising population, labour for the factories, and some of the raw materials needed by industry.

    圈地运动和其它农业改良为增加的人口提供了粮食,为工厂提供了劳动力,为工业提供了所需的一些原材料。

    3.Typical examples of the inventions during the Industrial Revolution

    工业革命中一些重大创新

    (1) John Kay‘s flying shuttle in 1733;

    1733年,约翰凯的飞梭;

    (2) James Hargreaves‘ Spinning Jenny in 1766;

    1766年詹姆士哈格里夫斯詹妮纺纱机;

    (3) Richard Arkwright‘s waterframe in 1769;

    1769年理查德阿克赖特的水力纺织机;

    (4) Samuel Crompton‘s mule in 1779

    1779年塞缪尔克朗普顿的走绽纺纱机;

    (5) Edmund Cartwright‘s power loom in 1784;

    1784年爱德蒙卡特莱特发明的力织机;

    (6) James Watt‘s steam engine in 1765.

    1765年詹姆斯瓦特的高效蒸汽机。

    4.Consequences of the industrial Revolution

    工业革命的结果

    (1) Britain was by 1830 the “workshop of the world”;

    英国成为了“世界工场”;

    (2) Towns grew rapidly and became the source of the nation‘s wealth.

    城镇迅速兴起,成为国家财富的源泉。

    (3) Mechanization destroyed the livelihood of those who could not invest in it . The working men worked and lived in a appalling conditions.

    机械化摧毁了不能投入其中的人们的生活。工人们在可怕的条件下劳动与生活。

    (4) The industrial revolution created the industrial working class, the proletariat, and it later led to trade unionism.

    工业革命产生了工人阶级,即无产阶级。后来形成了工会制度。

    III. The Chartist Movement (1836-1848)

    宪章运动(1836-1848)

    1. Reasons for parliamentary reforms.

    议会改革的原因

    (1) Power was monopolized by the aristocrats.

    权力由贵族操纵。

    (2) Representation of town and country, and North and South was unfair.

    城镇和农村,北方和南方的代表权极不平等。

    (3) There were also various so-called rotten or pocket boroughs.

    还有各种称之为衰败或口袋选区的选区。

    2.Three Reform Bills

    三个改革法案

    Between 1832 and 1884 three Reform Bills were passed.

    1832年至1884年间通过了三个改革法案。

    a) The Reform Act of 1832 (also called the “Greater Charter of 1832) abolished ”rotten boroughs“, and redistributed parliamentary seats more fairly among the growing tows. It also gave the vote to many householders and tenant‘s, based on the value of their property.

    1832年的《改革法案》(也称为1832年的大宪章)废除了“衰败选区”;在新兴城镇中较为公平地重新分配了议席;以财产价值为基础给予许多屋主和佃家。

    b) The New Poor Law of 1834 forced the poor people into work houses instead of giving them sufficient money to survive in their own homes.

    1834年的新贫困法强迫穷人进工厂,而没有给他们足够的钱在自己的家里生存。

    3.A People‘s Charter

    人民宪章

    There was widespread dissatisfaction with the Reform Act of 1832 and the New Poor Law. In 1836, a group of skilled workers and small shopkeepers formed the London Working Men‘s Association. They drew up a charter of political demands (a People’s Charter) in 1838, with the intention of presenting it to Parliament. It had six points: (1)the vote for all adult males; (2)voting by secret ballot; (3)equal electoral districts; (4)abolition of property qualifications for members of Parliament; (5)payment of members of Parliament; (6)annual Parliaments, with a General Election every June.

    1832年的《改革法案》和《新贫困法》引起了普遍不满。1836年,一群技术工人和小店主组成伦敦工厂联盟。他们于1838年起草了有关政治要求的宪章(人民宪章),想把它呈送给议会。宪章有六点内容:(1)所有成年男子都有选举权;(2)进行无记名投票;(3)平等选区;(4)议员选举废除财产资格要求;(5)议员应有报酬;(6)议会每年六月进行大选。

    4.Results of the Chartist Movement

    宪章运动的结果。

    Chartism failed because of its weak and divided leadership, and its lack of coordination with trade-unionism. The working class still immature, without the leadership of a political party armed with correct revolutionary theory. The Chartist movement was, however, the first nationwide working class movement and drew attention to serious problems. The 6 points were achieved very gradually over the period of 1858-1918, although the sixth has never been practical. Lenin said that Chartism was “the first broad, really mass, politically formed, proletarian revolutionary movement.”

    由于领导层的软弱和分歧,由于缺少与工会的协调,宪章运动失败了。当时的工人阶级还未成熟,没有正确的革命理论武装的政党领导。但是,宪章运动是第一次全国范围的工人阶级运动,引起了对许多严重问题的关注。在1858至1918年间,六项要求逐渐达到,尽管第六项从未成为现实。列宁说宪章运动是“第一个广泛的、真正群众参与的,有政治组织形式的无产阶级革命运动。”

    I. Trade Unions and the Labour Party

    工会和工党

    1. The Trade Union Act of 1871 legalized the trade unions and gave financial security.

    1871年通过的《工会法》使工会合法化并给其财政保障。

    2. The Labor Party had its origin in the Independent Labor Party(ILP), which was formed in January, 1893. In 1900, representatives of trade unions, the ILP, and a number of small socialist societies set up the Labor Representation Committee (LRC)。 The LRC changed its name to the Labor Party for the general election called for in 1906.

    工党起源于独立工党,于1893年1月成立。1900年,工会代表,独立工党和许多小型社会主义社团一起成立了工人代表委员会。1906年的大选迫使工人代表委员会及时更名为工党。

    II. Colonial Expansion

    殖民扩张

    1. The growth of dominions

    自治领的兴起

    English colonial expansion began with the colonization of Newfoundland in 1583. Encouraged by Britain‘s control of the seas, especially by the rising tide of emigration, British colonialists stepped up their expansion to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, in the late 18th and the early 19th centuries. By 1900, Britain had built up a big empire, “on which the sun never set”。 It consisted of a vast number of protectorates, Crown colonies, spheres of influence, and self-governing dominions. It included 25% of the world’s population and area.

    英国殖民扩张开始于1583年纽芬兰的殖民化。在18世纪末、19世纪初,受到海外移民浪潮的鼓舞,英国殖民者很快加他们的扩张到加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰。到1900年英国已建立了“日不落”的大英帝国,包括受保护国、英国殖民地、势力范围和自治领,占世界人口与面积的25%.

    Canada was ceded to Britain by the 1763 Treaty of Paris. French rights were guaranteed by the Quebec Act of 1774. The Canada Act of 1791 divided Canada into Upper Canada where the British had settled, and Lower Canada populated by the French. The British North America Act of 1867 established Canada as a dominion.

    1763年签订的《巴黎条约》将加拿大割让给英国。1774年的《魁北克法》保证了法国的权益。之后,1791年《加拿娃哈哈》把加拿大分为上加拿大和下加拿大,前者是英国人的定居地,后者是法国人的居住点。1867年《英国北美法案》确定加拿大为自治领。

    English began to transport convicts to Australia in 1788. Free settlement began in 1816, and no convicts were sent to Australia after 1840. The gold rushes (1851-1892) brought more people to Australia, and in 1901 the six self-governing wer united in one dominion-the independent Commonwealth of Australia.

    1788年英国人开始把囚犯流放到澳大利亚。1816年开始可以自由定居,1840年后囚犯不再流放到澳大利亚。1851年至1892年的淘金热使更多的人拥到澳洲。1901年,六个自治领统一为一个自治领—澳大利亚独立联邦。

    New Zealand became a separate colony of Britain in 1841, achieved self-government in 1857, became a dominion under the British crown in 1907 and was made completely independent in 1931.

    1841年新西兰成为独立殖民地,1857年实现自治,1907年成为英皇属下的自治领,1931年完全独立。

    1. The Conquest of India

    征服印度

    The British East India Company established in 1600. By 1819 the British conquest of most India was almost complete. After the muting of Bengal army in 1857, the control of India passed to the British Crown and Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1877.

    1600年英国东印度公司的建立是经济渗透的实例。到1819年英国对印度的征服已基本完成。1857年东印度公司孟加拉军队的当地士兵发动兵变后,1858年印度改由英国君主统治。1877年维多利来女王正式成为印度女皇。

    2. The Scramble for Africa

    对非洲的掠夺

    At the beginning of the 19th century British possessions were confined to forts and slave trading posts on the west coast. Over the 19th century the interior of Africa was gradually discovered and colonized by Europeans. Britain led the way in the race. Apart from the colonies in the South and West, Britain was also involved in the North East in Egypt and the Sudan.

    19世纪初英国的占领地局限于西海岸的堡垒和奴隶交易点。整个19世纪欧洲人逐渐发现并殖民了非洲内陆。在这场瓜分竞赛中英国占了较大的优势。除了不断扩张的南部和西部殖民地后,英国又凯觎东北的埃及和苏丹。

    3. Aggression against China

    侵略中国

    In 1840, the Opium War broke out between Britain and China. Since then, Britain gradually invaded many coastal areas and imposed a series of unequal treaties upon China.

    1840年英国和中国发动了鸦片战争。从那时起,英国逐渐侵略了中国的许多沿海城市,并签定了许多不平等条约。

    VI. Twentieth Century

    二十世纪

    1. Britain and the First World War

    英国和第一次世界大战

    The Work War I was fought from 1914 to 1918 primarily between two European Power blocs: “the Central power”。 Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the “Allies”, Britain, France and Russia. During the war, the Britain lost much. Apart from the loss of manpower, there had been considerable disruption of the economy and society. Out of the war settlement came the establishment of the league of Nations.

    第一次世界大战是从1914年至1918年,战争主要在两大欧洲集团间进行:“同盟国”,包括德国和奥匈帝国,和“协约国”,包括英国、法国和俄罗斯。一战中英国损失惨重。除了劳动力损失,还有巨大的经济与社会瓦解。

    2. Britain Between the Two World Wars

    两次世界大战期间的英国

    The effects of the New York Stock Market Crash of 1929 soon spread throughout Europe and by 1931 Britain was entering the Great depression.

    1929年纽约股票交易所崩溃的影响迅速波及欧洲,到1931年英国进入经济大萧条。

    3. Britain and the Second World War

    英国与第二次世界大战

    As Adolf Hitler and Nazism showed off their aggressive momentum in Europe, Chamberlain, the Prime Minister, found his policy of appeasement of German aggression was no longer tenable, and was forced to declare war on Germany on September 3,1939.

    当阿道夫希特勒及纳粹主义显示他们对欧洲的侵略意图时,首相张伯伦发现他的绥靖政策已站不住脚,只得于1939年9月3日对德宣战。

    4. Postwar Britian

    战后的英国

    (1) One of the most far-reaching consequences of the War was that it hastened the end of Britain‘s empire.

    二战最为深远的结果之一是加速了大英帝国的瓦解。

    (2) In 1952 Princess Elizabeth was crowned Queen Elizabeth II. Many people through television saw the ceremony.

    1952年伊莉莎白公主加冕成为伊莉莎白女王二世。新发明的电视使许多人看到了加冕仪式的过程。

    (4) In January 1973, Britain became a full member of the European Economic Community which was still called the Common Market in 1973. Britain witnessed the first oil shock in 1973.

    1973年1月,英国终于成为欧洲经济共同体的正式成员国。1973年仍称为共同市场。1973年英国经历了第一次石油禁运。

    (5) Mrs Thatcher

    撒切尔主义

    Thatcherism referred to the policies put forward by Margaret Thatcher, the first woman prime minister in England in 1979. The main contents of her policies included the return to private ownership of state-owned industries, the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, the weakening of trade unions the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and an emphasis on law and order. To some extent her program was successful and she led one of the most remarkable periods in the British economy.

    1979年撒切尔夫人成为英国第一任女首相。她提出的政策被为“撒切尔主义”。其内容包括国有工业私有化,采用货币主义政策以控制通货膨胀,削弱工会的影响,加强市场因素在经济中的作用,强调法律和秩序。在一定程度上讲,她的计划是成功的。她领导英国经济度过了一段最繁华的时期之一。

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