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自考英语国家概况精讲系列第九章

2006-05-16 15:38  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错

    Chapter 9

    第九章

    Social Affairs

    英国社会

    I. Health and Social Services

    全国医疗保健计划

    1. Britain is regarded as a welfare state. This system is funded out of national insurance contributions and taxation. In Britain the term applies mainly to the National Health Service (NHS), national insurance and social security.

    英国被认为是福利制度的国家。此制度的所需资金来源于全国保险税和赋税。在英国,这主要是指国民保健制度,国民保险和社会保障制度。

    2. The National Health Service provides for every resident, regardless of income, a full range of medical services. The service was established in the U.K. in 1948. Over 82 per cent of the cost of the health service in Great Britain id funded out of general taxation. The rest is met from: (1) the NHS element of National Insurance contributions; (2) charges towards the cost of certain items such as drugs prescribed by family doctors, and general dental treatment; (3) other receipts, including land sales and the proceeds of income generation schemes.

    不管个人收入如何,国民保健制度为每个居民提供全面医疗服务。英国于1948年确立此制度。英国国民保健制度82%以下的费用来自普通税收,其他部分来自(1)国民保险金中的国民保险金部分;(2)象对家庭一生开的药单和普通牙科治疗所收的费用;(3)其他收入,包括出售土地和增收计划的收益。

    3. There are proportional charges for most types of HNS dental treatment, including examinations. Sight test are free to children. No one is liable to be charged by the National Health Service for treatment in an accident, emergency or for an infectious disease. Central government is directly responsible for the NHS, which is administered by a range of local health authorities and health boards throughout the U……

    国民保健制度中多数牙科治疗都要收取一定比例的费用,包括检查费。视力检查对儿童免费。国民保健制度对事故,急诊或传染病的治疗不收费,中央政府直接负责国民保健制度,由全国各地的保健机构和卫生委员会实施。

    4. The family health services are those given to patients by doctors, dentists, opticians and pharmacists. In order to obtain the benefits of the NHS a person must normally be registered on the list of a general practitioner (GP, sometimes knows as a “family doctor”)。

    家庭保健服务由医生、牙医、眼科大夫和药剂师提供给病人。为获得国民保健制度的服务,人们必须在普通开业医生的名册上注册。

    5. A full range of hospital services is provided by district general hospital. There are also specialist hospital or units for children, people suffering from mental illness, those with learning disabilities, and elderly people, and for the treatment of specific diseases.

    地区普通医院提供全面的医院服务。也有为儿童,精神病人,有学习障碍者,老人和特殊病人开设的专门医院或病区。

    6. The National Health Service is the largest single employer of labour in the U.K. NHS has suffered from underfunding in recent decades, as a result of which many better-off people have been turning to private medical health care.

    国民保健制度是英国最大的用人机构。近几十年来,因为资金不足,许多比较富裕的人正逐渐转向私人的医疗保健机构。

    7. Personal social services in Britain assist elderly people, disabled people, people with learning disabilities or mental illness, children, and families facing special problems. These statutory service are provided by local government social services authorities.

    在英国,个人社会服务向老人,残疾人,有学习障碍者,精神病人,有特殊家庭困难的人等。地方政府社会服务委员会提供法定援助。

    II. social Security

    社会保险

    1. The social security system is designed to secure a basic standard of living for people in financial need. Nearly a third of government expenditure is devoted to the social security programme which provides financial help for people who are elderly, sick, disabled, unemployed, widowed, bringing up children or on very low incomes.

    社会保险制度设立的目的是保障经济困难的人们的基本生活水平,政府开支的近三分之一用于社会保险计划。此计划给老人,病人,残疾人,失业者,寡妇,抚育幼儿者或低收入者提供经济帮助。

    2. Administration in Great Britain is handled by separate executive agencies of the Department of Social Security. In Northern Ireland by the Social Security Agency.

    大不列颠的社会保险由社会保险部独立执行机构管理,在北爱尔兰则是社会保险局。

    3. contributory social security benefits, it include:( 1) retirement pension; (2) unemployment pension; (3) sickness and invalidity benefit and (4) Maternity allowance and widows‘s benefits.

    需要先交费的社会安全福利(个人有工作收入时交,无收入时领),其中包括:退休金,失业金,病残福利金,孕产期补助金,寡妇补助金。

    4. non-contributory social security benefits, it include: (1) war pensions;(2) industrial injuries disablement benefit;(3) child benefit and (4) family credit.

    不需要先交费的福利金,包括战争伤亡抚恤金,工伤致残救济金,儿童补助金,低收入家庭补助金。

    III. Religion宗教

    1. Everyone in Britain has the right to religious freedom with out interference from the community or the State. He may change his religion at will may manifest his faith in teaching, worship and observance. Except that the Lord Chancellor may be a Roman Catholic, public offices are open without distinction to members of all churches or none.

    在英国,人人都有信仰宗教的权利,社会和政府不得干涉。他可以随意改变宗教信仰,可以在教职,礼拜或仪式中表明他的信仰。除了娃哈哈官不可以是罗马天主教徒外,公共职务对各种信仰或没有信仰的人一律公开。

    2. Established churches

    国教

    There are two established church in Britain: in England the church of England and Scotland the Church of England.

    英国有两大国教,在英格兰是英格兰国教,苏格兰是苏格兰教会(长老教)。

    3. Church of England is uniquely related to the Crown in that the Sovereign must be a member of that Church and as “Defender of the Faith”。 The Church is also linked with the State through the House of loads. The church of England is not free to change its form of worship, as laid down in the Book of Common Prayer without the consent of Parliament.

    英格兰国教与君主有独特的联系。因为君主作为“国教的捍卫者”必须是此教会的一员,他在登基时必须承诺维持国教。国教还通过上议院与政府联系。没有议会同意,英格兰教会不可随意改变“国教祈祷书”中规定的礼拜仪式。

    4. The government of the Church of Scotland is Presbyterian, that is, government by ministers and elders, all of whom are ordained to office. The Monarch is normally represented at the general assembly by the Lord High Commissioner.

    英格兰教的管理时长老制,也就是由教士和长老治理。他们被授予圣职,王室高级代表通常代表君主光临会议。

    5. Unestablished churches

    非国教教会

    There are include: the Anglican Churches(圣公会),the Free Churches(自由教),the Roman Catholic Church(罗马天主教)。

    IV. Festival and Public Holidays

    节假日

    The Christian festival of the year and Christmas, Easter, and Whit Sunday.

    其主要的节日有圣诞节,复活节,圣灵降临节

    Chapter 10

    第十章

    Sports

    体育运动

    1. Many international sports were introduced by the British who take their leisure time very seriously. There is widespread participation in sport in Britain.

    许多国际体育项目是由认真对待休闲时间的英国人引进的,在英国,人们广泛参与体育。

    2. Football ( or “soccer” as it is colloquially called ), the most popular sport in England as well as in Europe, has its traditional home in England where it was developed in the 19th century.

    足球(口语叫“soccer”),在英格兰和欧洲是最受欢迎的运动,其传统老家在英格兰,出现于19世纪。

    3. The game “Rugby” was invented at Rugby School in Warwich shire in the early 19th century.

    拉格比球比赛19世纪初创立于沃尔威克郡的拉格比学校,因此而得名。

    4. Cricket, the most typically English of sports, has been in existence since the 16th century. On an international level, 5-day Cornhill Test Matches.

    板球,是英国人最典型的体育运动,自从16世纪以来已存在。国际比赛是5天的康希尔决赛。

    5. Although tennis has been played for centuries, the modern game originated in England in late 19th. The main tournament is the annual Wimbledon fortnight, one of the 4 tennis “Grand Slam” tournaments.

    尽管网球已打了好几个世纪,但现代比赛却起源于19世纪末的英格兰。主要比赛是一年一度的温布尔登两周赛,这是四大满贯网球锦标赛之一。

    6. There is a considerable following and participation of athletics in Britain. For example, the London Marathon, which takes place every spring.

    英国参加田径的人很多,例如伦敦的马拉松塞,每年春季举行。

    7. The home of golf is Scotland where the game has been played since the 17th century and naturally the oldest golf club in the world is there: The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers. The Walker Cup for amateurs and the Ryder Cup for professionals.

    高尔夫球的故里是苏格兰,自从17世纪以来这项运动就在那儿盛行。全世界最古老的高尔夫俱乐部也在那里:爱丁堡高尔夫球会员荣誉公司。业余球员参加沃尔克公开赛,职业球员参加雷德尔杯。

    英国部分结束

本文转载链接:自考英语国家概况精讲系列第九章

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