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自考英语国家概况精讲系列第一章

2006-05-16 15:16  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错

    Chapter 1

    第一章

    Land and People

    英国的国土与人民

    I. Different Names for Britain and its Parts

    英国的不同名称及其各组成部分

    1.Geographical names: the British Isles, Great Britain and England.

    地理名称:不列颠群岛,大不列颠和英格兰。

    2.Official name: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    官方正式名称:大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国。

    3.The British Isles are made up of two large islands-Great Britain (the larger one) and Ireland, and hundreds of small ones.

    不列颠群岛由两个大岛—大不列颠岛(较大的一个)和爱尔兰岛,及成千上万个小岛组成。

    4.Three political divisions on the island of Great Britain: England, Scotland and Wales.

    大不列颠岛上有三个政治区:英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士。

    (1) England is in the southern part of Great Britain. It is the largest, most populous section.

    英格兰位于大不列颠岛南部,是最大,人口最稠密的地区。

    (2) Scotland is in the north of Great Britain. It has three natural zones (the Highlands in the north; the Central lowlands; the south Uplands) Capital: Edinburgh

    苏格兰位于大不列颠的北部。它有三大自然区:北部高地,中部低地及南部山陵。首府:爱丁堡。

    (3) Wales is in the west of Great Britain. Capital: Cardiff

    威尔士位于大不列颠的西部。首府:加的夫

    (4) Northern Ireland is the fourth region of the UK. Capital: Belfast.

    北爱尔兰是英国第四个区域。首府:贝尔法斯特。

    5.The Commonwealth (of nations) is a free association of independent countries that were once colonies of Britain. It was founded in 1931, and has 50 member countries until 1991.

    英联邦是曾为英国殖民地的、但现已独立国家所构成的自由联合体。它成立于1931年,至1990年止已有50个成员国。

    II. Geographical Features 英国的地理特征

    1.Geographical position of Britain:

    英国的地理位置:

    Britain is an island country surrounded by the sea. It lies in the North Atlantic Ocean off the north coast of Europe. It is separated from the rest of Europe by the English Channel in the south and the North Sea in the east.

    英国是一个岛国。它位于大西洋北部,与欧洲大陆的北海岸隔海相望。南面的英吉利海峡和东面的北海将它与欧洲其它部分隔开。

    2.The north and west of Britain are mainly highlands; and the east and southeast are mostly lowlands.

    英国的西部和北部主要是高地,东部和东南部主要是低地。

    III. Rivers and Lakes 河流与湖泊

    Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Britain (1,343m)。

    本尼维斯山为英国最高峰,海拔1,343米。

    Severn River is the longest river in Britain (338km)。

    塞文河是英国最长的河流。全长338公里。

    Thames River is the second longest and most important river in Britain. (336km)。

    泰晤士河是英国第二大河,也是英国最重要的河。全长336公里。

    Lough Neagh is the largest lake in Britain which is located in Northern Ireland. (396 square kilometres)。

    讷湖(内伊湖)是英国最大的湖,位于北爱尔兰。面积为396平方公里。

    River Clyde is the most important river in Scotland.

    克莱德河是苏格兰最重要的河流。

    Snowdonia is the highest mountain in Wales.(1,085m)

    斯诺多尼亚是威尔士的最高点,海拔1,085米。

    IV. Climate 气候

    1. Britain's favorable climate 英国有利的气候条件:

    Britain has a maritime climate-winters are not too cold and summers are not too hot. It has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year. The temperature varies within a small range.

    英国属于海洋性气候:冬季不过于寒冷,夏季不过于炎热。全年有稳定可靠的降雨量,气温变化幅度小。

    2.The factors influence the climate in Britain:

    影响英国气候的因素:

    1)The surrounding waters tend to balance the seasonal differences by heating up the land in winter and cooling it off in summer;

    环绕四周的海水。冬天,海水可使岛内气温升高,夏天则使气温降低,从而起到平衡季节温差的作用;

    2)The prevailing south-west winds or the Westerlies blow over the country all the year round bringing warm and wet air in winter and keeping the temperatures moderate;

    一年四季盛行的西南风和西风在冬季从大西洋带来温暖、潮湿的空气,使气温适宜;

    3)The North Atlantic Drift passes the western coast of the British Isles and warms them.

    北大西洋暖流经不列颠群岛西海岸,使气候变暖。

    3.Rainfall 降雨量:

    Britain has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year. The average annual rainfall in Britain is over 1,000mm.

    There is a water surplus in the north and west, and a water deficit in the south and east.

    英国全年降雨量稳定,平均降雨量超过1000毫米。 英国北部、西部雨量过多,但是南部、东部有所缺乏。

    V. The People 人口

    1.population distribution 人口分布:

    Britain has a population of about 57 millions and it is very unevenly distributed. 90% of the population is urban and only 10% is rural. The population of Britain is made up mainly of the English (81.5%), the Scottish (9.6%), the Welsh (1.9%), the Irish (2.4%), the Northern Irish (1.8%) and other peoples (2.8%)。

    英国人口约570万,分布极不均匀,90%是城市人口,只有10%是农村人口。英国人口组成为:英格兰人(81.5%),苏格兰人(9.6%),威尔士人(1.9%),爱尔兰人、北爱尔兰人和其他民族居民。

    2.The difference between the ancestors of the English and Scots, Welsh and Irish:

    英伦三岛民族的祖先:

    The ancestors of the English are Anglo-Saxons, the Scots, Welsh and Irish are Celts.

    英格兰人祖先属于盎格鲁—萨克逊人,而苏格兰、威尔士和爱尔兰人属于凯尔特人。

    3.The difference in character个性差别:

    The Welsh are emotional and cheerful people. They are music lovers and are proud of their past.

    威尔士人感情丰富,情绪高涨,热爱音乐,为过去感到自豪。

    The Scots are said to be a serious, cautious and thrifty people, and they are also hospitable, generous and friendly.

    苏格兰人通常被认为严肃、谨慎而且节俭,但是他们同样也热情、大方且友好。

    The Irish are charm and vivacity. 爱尔兰人充满魅力,生性活泼。

    4.The difference in speech between southern England and northern England:

    英格兰南方人和北方人语言上的差别:

    Southerners speak the type of English close to BBC English; In northern England, regional speech is usually "broader" than that of southern England.

    南方人讲的英语接近BBC,北英格兰人的发音通常要比南英格兰人宽。

    5.The Welsh keep their language and culture in this way: 威尔士人以这样的方式使他们的语言及文化保持活力。

    Throughout the year they have festivals of song and dance and poetry called Eisteddfodau. The great event of the year is the National Eisteddfod. On these occasions competitions are held in Welsh poetry, music, singing and art.

    一年中他们有称之为“艺术年会”的唱歌、跳舞、诗歌节。一年中最重要的节日是全国诗歌音乐比赛会。在那里会举行威尔士诗歌、音乐、唱歌和艺术比赛。

    6.The main problem in Northern Ireland: 北爱尔兰存在的主要问题:

    The fight between the Protestants who are the dominant group, and the Roman Catholics, who are seeking more social, political and economic opportunities.

    作为统治者的新教徒和要求更多社会、政治及经济权利的罗马天主教徒之间的斗争。

    7.Immigrants: 移民:

    About three million have come to Britain to live and find work since World War II.

    自从二战以来约有三百万人来英国生活、工作。

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