当前位置:首页> 英语(一) > 09年自考英语(一)课堂笔记(unit2)


2009年06月12日    来源: 自考365论坛   字体:   打印

  Text A   Taxes, Taxes, and More Taxes


  1.tax n. & v. 税(款);对…征税The government plans to increase taxes by 3 percent.


  In Britain, tobacco and alcoholic drinks are heavily taxed.


  income tax(所得税) sales tax(销售税)

  import tax(进口税) housing and land tax(房地产税)

  VAT (value-added tax)(增值税) poll tax(人头税)

  tax-collector(税务员) tax-payer(纳税人)

  dodge tax(逃税,漏税) tax-free(免税的)

  2.type n. 类型,种类,品种v. 打字No one knows why he doesn't like this type of work.(没有人知道他为什么不喜欢这种工作。)

  The manager asked Mary to type the letter again.(经理要玛丽把信重打一遍。)

  typewriter(打字机)      typist(打字员)

  3.salary n. 工资     v. (常用被动语态)给…发薪salaried adj. 拿薪水的,领工资的She was happy to know that she would get a promotion and an increase in salary.(得知她将得到提级和加薪,她很开心。)

  Don't worry about him, he will be salaried by a big company.(别为他担心,一家大公司会给他发薪水。)

  With his knowledge and experience he was bound to get a high-salaried post.(凭借他的知识和经验,他一定能找到一份高薪的工作。)

  salary和 wage的区别在于:salary是指为从事非体力劳动的人按月支付的薪水,wage则通常指为从事体力劳动的人按周支付的薪水。

  4.earn v. 挣得;赢得,获得He worked 14 hours a day in order that he could earn enough to support the family.(为了能挣足够的钱养家,他每天工作十四小时。)

  His sincerity earns him friends wherever he goes.(无论走到哪,他的真诚都能赢得朋友。)

  5.percentage n. 百分比,百分率;比例,部分percent/per cent n. 每百中,百分之…

  The percentage of university enrollment will be greatly increased this year.(今年,大学录取的百分比将大大提高。)

  About 70 percent of high school graduates in Nanjing will be enrolled by universities this year.(今年,南京的高中毕业生将有百分之七十被高校录取。)

  6.vary vi. 变化,有不同vt. 改变,使不同Prices of fish vary from 70 cents a pound to one dollar a pound.(鱼的价格从七十美分到一美元一磅不等。)

  The weather in this area varies from hour to hour.(这儿的天气时刻有变化。)

  I didn't vary my plan at the last moment.(我在最后一刻没有改变我的计划。)

  7.graduated adj.(税)累进的;刻度的graduate v. & n. 毕业;毕业生graduation n. 毕业As the federal government has a graduated income tax, the more you earn, the higher tax you have to pay. 因为联邦政府实行累进所得税,所以,你挣的越多,缴的所得税就越高。

  A graduated glass will enable you to know how much water you have put into the vessel.(量杯能够使你知道你在容器里放了多少水。)

  He graduated from high school last year. But it was difficult for a high school graduate to find a satisfactory job.


  After graduation she went to work in a hospital as a nurse. (毕业后,她去医院做了一名护士。)

  8.sale n. 出售,卖;廉价出售sell v. 卖Mr. Smith is now interested in my car and I hope I can make the sale today.(史密斯先生现在对我的汽车感兴趣,我希望今天就能卖成。)

  He sold his bike to Tom.(他把自行车卖给了汤姆。)

  for sale(待售) on sale(上市的)

  a clearance sale(清仓拍卖) sales department(营业部)

  sales promotion(促销活动) sales manager(销售经理)


  9.charge v. 索价;指控;使充满n. 价钱;指控;负责He charged me 10 yuan for a bowl of plain rice.(一碗白米饭,他要了我十块钱。)

  The young man was charged with stealing.(那个年轻人被指控犯了盗窃罪。)

  Charge your glasses and drink to our friendship.(斟满杯,为我们的友谊干杯。)

  The charge for a front-row seat is 250 yuan.(前排座位票价250元。)

  The police arrested him on a charge of murder.(警察以谋杀罪拘捕了他。)

  Who will be in charge of our class when the teacher is away?(老师不在的时候,谁管我们班?)

  10.figure n. 数字;人物;外形v. 想出;算出;估计He has a good head for figures.(他的数字概念很强。)

  No one had expected that his savings could reach 5 figures in such a short time.(谁也没料到在这么短的时间里,他的存款能达到五位数。)

  He was an important figure in American history.(他是美国历史上的重要人物。)

  She was always worrying about her figure as she couldn't resist the temptation of chocolates. (她抵御不了巧克力的诱惑,所以总是担心自己的体形。)

  We are trying to figure out a way to help them.(我们正在想办法帮助他们。)

  Figure out the expenses and see if we have enough money.(算一算费用,看看我们的钱是否够。)

  She brought an umbrella as she figured they might need it.(她带了一把伞,因为她估计他们会需要。)

  11.add v. 增加,增添addition n. 加 (in addition to除…之外)

  additional adj. 附加的,另外的The fire is going out, add more wood to it. (火要灭了,再加些木柴。)

  His explanation adds to my confusion.(他的解释使我更加糊涂。)

  In addition to leaves, these animals eat a great deal of fruit.(除了树叶之外,这些动物还吃大量的水果。)

  It will take an additional two days to finish the work.(还要再花两天时间才能完成这项工作。)

  12.revenue n. 收入,收益;税收The manager is worrying about the drop in advertising revenue.(经理正为广告收入的下降着急。)

  The loss of tax revenue in many areas is getting higher.(许多地区的税收流失越来越严重。)

  the Public Revenue(财政收入,国库收入)

  Inland Revenue(国内税收)     revenue department(税务部门)

  13.diverse adj. 不同的;多种多样的diversity n. 多样性;差异He is a man of diverse talent.(他是一个有多种才能的人。)

  They offered us diverse suggestions at the meeting.(他们在会上给我们提出了各种各样的建议。)

  His writing displays the diversities of human behavior.(他的作品展示了人类行为的多样性。)

  A great diversity of methods has been tried in doing this experiment.(实验中尝试过各种各样的方法。)

  14.confuse v. 使混乱,混淆confusion n. 混乱,慌乱What he said just now confuses all of us.(他刚才说的话把我们都弄糊涂了。)

  Her answers have only added to his confusion.(她的回答只使他更加糊涂。)

  15.property n. 财产,资产;(房)地产;特性,性质That car is my property, you cannot use it without my permission.(那辆车是我的财产,没我的允许,你不能动用。)

  The city is growing and property in the center is becoming more valuable.(城市在发展,市中心的房地产越来越有价值了。)

  Many plants have medicinal properties.(许多植物有药用特性。)

  state property (国家财产) personal property(动产)

  real property/estate(不动产) intellectual property(知识产权)

  16.excise n. 国产税,本国消费税exercise n.& v. 行使,运用;锻炼;练习customs n. 关税  (Customs 海关)

  17.fund n. 基金,专款;储备,贮存v. 提供资金,供以款项We would set up a fund to help those children whose parents couldn't afford to send them to school.(我们将设立一项基金,帮助那些父母供不起他们读书的孩子。)

  They have a fund of knowledge and experience to draw on.(他们有丰富的知识和经验可利用。)

  This research is funded by the government.(这项研究由政府提供资金。)

  18.department n. 部,部门;系科the State Department (美国)国务院  the Department of Education 教育部department store 百货商店     the department of physics 物理系

  19.municipal adj. 市的,市政的the municipal government  市政府municipal administration   市政管理a municipal university    市立大学

  20.complain v. 抱怨,埋怨,发牢骚,诉苦complaint n. 抱怨,诉说He complained to the manager about/of the poor after-service.(他对经理抱怨说售后服务太差。)

  She complained about/of her husband's carelessness.(她抱怨说她丈夫太粗心。)

  The teacher complained that the students didn't work hard enough.(老师抱怨学生学习不够努力。)

  It is a common complaint that today's children lack the sense of cooperation.(人们常常抱怨今天的孩子缺少合作意识。)

  21.impractical adj. 不切实际的,不能实行的practical adj. 实际的,可行的His suggestion sounds good, but it is really impractical.(他的建议听起来不错,但是的确不切实际。)

  How long will it be before this theory can be put into practical use? (这一理论还要多久才能被实际运用?)

  22.program n. 计划;(电视)节目;程序v. 使按预定步骤工作;编程They are drawing up a program of water purification.(他们正在制定一个净水计划。)

  Tonight's TV programs will be very interesting.(今晚的电视节目会非常有趣。)

  I know nothing about computer programs.(我对电脑编程一窍不通。)

  You can program it to do different tasks at specific times.(你可以使它在特定的时间按计划完成各项不同的任务。)

  23.view n. 看法,观点;视野,眼界;景色,风景v. 看待,考虑He was unwilling to express his views on what had happened.(他不愿意就所发生的一切发表自己的观点。)

  When we stood on the top of the mountain, the whole city came into our view.(我们站在山顶时,整个城市尽收眼底。)

  Looking out of the window, he had a fine view of the Slender West Lake.(朝窗外望去,他看到了瘦西湖的美景。)

  Several possible buyers have come to view your car.(几个想买车的人来看过你的车了。)

  If you stand in his shoes to view the problem, you will come to a totally different conclusion. (如果你站在他的立场上来考虑这个问题,你会得出完全不同的结论。)

  24.issue n. 问题,争论点;发行v. 出版,发行,颁布At today's meeting we have to spend some time discussing this issue.(在今天的会上,我们得花点时间讨论这个问题。)

  The minute he got the latest issue of the sports magazine, he read it with great interest.(一拿到最新一期的体育杂志,他就津津有味地看了起来。)

  Her first novel issued in May.(她的第一部小说于五月份出版了。)

  He issued instructions that the prisoners should be set free.(他下令释放犯人。)

  25.tend v. 护理,照管tend to 易于,往往会;倾向于She is tending a very sick patient. (她在护理一位重病人。)

  In addition to his full-time job, he tends a bar.(除了一份全日制的工作,他还照管一个酒吧。)

  When you ask her more than one question, she tends to get impatient.(你问她两个以上的问题,她往往会不耐烦。)

  He tends to be optimistic no matter what happens.(无任发生任何事情,他总倾向于乐观。)

  本课主要构词法Conversion (转类法──名词和动词相互转类)

  tax type salary charge packet figure fund protest program view issue tend本课简介Taxes, Taxes, and More Taxes 介绍了美国三级政府(联邦政府,州政府,市政府)征收的三种税(income tax,sales tax,property tax and excise tax)。美国人对税收的一致看法是:The taxes are too high. 这篇文章对我们了解美国社会很有帮助,值得一读。


  1.Americans often say that there are two things a person can be sure of in life: death and taxes.

  句中的that引导的是一个宾语从句,例如:Everybody knows that the earth goes around the sun.(众所周知,地球围绕太阳转。)


  1)他知道我不会责怪他。(He knew that I wouldn't blame him.)

  2)妈妈说他必须在六点以前回来。(Mother said that he had to be back before 6:00.)

  3)我想天气很快会放晴。(I think that it is going to clear up soon.)

  4)我相信他对我说了实话。(I believe that he told me the truth.)

  句中的a person can be sure of …是定语从句,修饰two things, 引导定语从句的关系代词that被省去了。例如:Have you found the book you want?(你找到你要的书了吗?)


  1)他找到了他丢失的那块表。(He found the watch he had lost.)

  2)这儿有很多我感兴趣的书。(There are many books I am interested in.)

  be sure of的意思是“对……确信无疑”,例如:

  ─ Is he going to call us at 9:00? (他会在九点给我们打电话吗?)

  ─ Yes, I am sure of it. (是的,我肯定。)


  1)I am sure of his sincerity. (我确信他的诚意。)

  2)You are sure of a warm welcome.(你肯定会受到热烈的欢迎。)

  3)I don't know for sure whether he will come or not.(我不很确切地知道他是否会来。)

  4)Make sure that you turn off the light when you leave.(确保在你离开时把灯关掉。)

  5)Be sure not to forget what your parents said to you.(千万别忘了父母对你说的话。)

  2.Americans don't have a corner on the “death” market, but many people feel that the United States leads the world with the worst taxes.

  have a corner的意思是“垄断”,例如:have a corner on the cotton market (垄断棉花市场);have a corner on the black vote(垄断黑人选票)。有时也会见到以in 代替on的用法:have a corner in banking lead在句中的意思是“走在…前列”,“在……领先”,“胜过”。


  1)He leads his class in English.(他在班上英语学的最好。)

  2)He led the broad jump with a leap of 26 feet.(他以26 英尺的成绩在跳远中领先。)

  3)Pollution still leads the list of major problems in that country.(污染仍然是那个国家的头号严重问题。)

  3.Taxes consist of money which people pay to support their government.

  句中which 引导的定语从句修饰the money.


  1)This is the book that I just borrowed from the library.(这是我刚刚从图书馆借的书。)

  2)He put the money that his mother gave him in a safe place.(他把妈妈给他的钱放在一个安全的地方。)

  3)I don't remember where I put the CD that I bought yesterday. (我记不得把昨天买的CD放在哪儿了。)

  consist of的意思是“由……构成”,它与 make up of , compose of 的区别在于:consist of不可用被动语态,而make up of和 compose of 可以用被动语态。例如:

  1)The house consists of 6 rooms.

  2)The medical team is made up of three doctors and a nurse.

  3)The book is composed of 25 units.

  4.Salaried people who earn more than a few thousand dollars must pay a certain percentage of their salaries to the federal government.

  句中who引导的定语从句修饰 people.


  1)The girl who helped me with my English is our monitor.(帮助我学外语的那个女孩是我们班长。)

  2)The man who knocked at the door just now is my next-door neighbor.(刚才敲门的那个人是我的隔壁邻居。)

  3)The boy who was shot to death by his classmate was only 8.(被同学开枪打死的那个男孩才八岁。)


  1)税率从百分之十四到百分之七十不等。(The percentage of the tax varies from 14% to 70%.)

  2)学生的及格率达到了百分之九十五。(The percentage of students who passed the exam reached 95%.)

  3)工业产量上涨了百分之十四。(The industrial output increased by 14%.)

  5.It depends on their salaries.

  depend on在句中的意思是“视……而定”。除此以外,还可表示“依靠”:“信赖”等。


  1)成功与否得看你的能力和努力。(Success depends on your ability and efforts.)

  2)Whether we can go outing depends on tomorrow's weather. (我们能否去郊游取决于明天的天气。)

  3)The old man depends on the government pension for a living.(那位老人靠政府的养老金生活。)

  4)他总是依赖姐姐给他做作业。(He always depends on his sister to do his homework.)

  5)He is not to be depended on.(他不可信赖。)

  6.With the high cost of taxes, people are not very happy on April 15, when the federal taxes are due.

  介词with在句中的意思是“由于,因为”。例如:With their support, we fulfilled our task ahead of time.(由于他们的帮助,我们提前完成了任务。)

  如果仅仅有月份,没有具体的日期,月份前用介词in ,如果有具体的日期则用介词on ,例如:1)He was born in May. 2)He was born on May 23.

  句中due的意思是“到期”,例如:The books are due, I have to return them to the library. (书到期了,我得去图书馆还书。)


  1)The train is due to arrive at 8:00.(火车定于八点钟到达。)

  2)The baby is due in the middle of October.(婴儿的预产期为十月中旬。)

  3)Due attention should be paid to this work.(应该给这项工作以适当的关注。)

  4)Old people expect to be treated with the respect due to their age.(老人们期望受到他们这个年龄的人应得的尊敬。)

  5)His death was due to heart attack.(他的死是由心脏病引起的。)

  7.Some states have an income tax similar to that of the federal government.



  1)南京的天气比青岛的天气热。(The weather of Nanjing is hotter than that of Qingdao.)

  2)黄金的价格比白银的价格要高。(The price of gold is higher than that of silver.)

  8.Other states have a sales tax, which is a percentage charged to any item which you buy in that state.

  句中前一个which 引导的是一个非限定性定语从句,修饰sales tax.非限定性定语从句通常在句中起进一步说明作用,既可修饰先行词也可修饰整个句子。如果省去,原句意义不受影响。非限定性定语从句有逗号与主句隔 开;关系代词不可用that,而用who, whom, whose来修饰人,用which来修饰物,并且不能省略。


  1)The sun warms the earth, which makes it possible for plants and animals to live.(太阳温暖了大地,这才使动植物有可能生长。)

  2)He failed the exam, which made him very disappointed.(他考试没及格,这使他非常失望。)

  3)He has a son, who is doing his PH.D in the United States.(他有一个儿子,在美国读博士学位。)

  句中后一个which引导的是一个限定性定语从句,修饰any item.但是传统语法中通常有这样的规定:当先行词是all,everything,something,nothing等不定代词,或被first, only,few,much,some,any,no以及形容词最高级等词修饰时,应该用关系代词that,不用which.例如:I am interested in all that you told me.

  9.The cities use these funds for education, police and fire department, public works and municipal buildings.

  work 用作单数时,通常指工作,例如:I have a lot of work to do this afternoon.

  用作复数时,works则指 1)著作:The Complete Works of Mao Zetong(《毛泽东全集》) 2)工程:public works(公共建筑工程,市政工程)

  10.They say that it spends too much on useless and impractical programs.

  spend too much (money) on sth的意思是“把太多的钱花在……”,例如:He would spend some money on books every month……(他每个月都花一些钱买书。)

  我们常常会碰到的另一个词组spend some time (in) doing sth.的意思是“花时间做某事”,例如:He spent a lot of time doing the experiment.(他花了很多时间做实验。)


  1)Tom paid 20 dollars for that T-shirt.

  2)The T-shirt cost Tom 20 dollars.

  3)Tom spent 20 dollars on that T-shirt.


  1)我借给他的那本新字典花了我三十多块钱。(The dictionary I lent him cost me more than 30 yuan.)

  2)把这辆自行车修一修要花很多钱吗?(Does it cost much to get this bike repaired?)

  3)在过去的几年中,这家工厂花了很多钱改善工作条件。(In the past few years, the factory has spent a lot of money improving the working conditions.)

  4)她不喜欢把钱花在华而不实的服装上。(She doesn't like to spend money on fancy clothes.)

  5)买这部手机你花了多少钱?(How much money did you pay for this self-phone?)

  6) 她花了一百多块钱买那双鞋。(She paid more than a hundred for that pair of shoes.)

  本课主要词组1.be sure of      2.have a corner 3.consist of      4.vary from 5.depend on      6.a packet of 7.in addition to  8.complain about 9.in the wrong way  10.spend…on 11.tend to          12.agree on本课主要句型A. 宾语从句:

  1)Americans often say that there are only two things a person can be sure of.

  2)…but many people feel that the United States lead the world with the worst taxes.

  3)…they often feel that they are working one day each week just to pay their taxes.

  4)They often protest that the government uses their tax dollars in the wrong way.

  5)They say that it spends too much on useless and practical programs.


  1)Taxes consist of money which people pay to support their government.

  2)Salaried people who earn more than a few thousand dollars must pay a certain percentage of their salaries to the federal government.

  3)Other states have a sales tax, which is a percentage charged to any item which you buy in that state.

  4)…people who own a home have to pay taxes on it…

  5)…and excise tax, which is charged on cars in a city.

  美国五十个州A. The New England States (6)

  1.Maine (缅因) 2.New Hampshire*(新罕布什尔)

  3.Vermont(佛蒙特) 4.Massachusetts*(马萨诸塞)

  5.Connecticut*(康涅狄格) 6.Rhode Island*(罗得岛)

  B. The Middle Atlantic States (7)

  7.New York*(纽约) 8.Pennsylvania*(宾夕法尼亚)

  9.New Jersey*(新泽西) 10.Delaware*(特拉华)

  11.Maryland* (马里兰) 12.Virginia*(弗吉尼亚)

  13.West Virginia(西弗吉尼亚)

  C.The Southern Atlantic States (11)

  14.North Carolina* (北卡罗来纳) 15.South Carolina*(南卡罗来纳)

  16.Georgia*(佐治亚) 17.Florida(佛罗里达)

  18.Alabama(亚拉巴马) 19.Mississippi(密西西比)

  20.Tennessee (田纳西) 21.Louisiana(路易斯安那)

  22.Arkansas(阿肯色) 23.Texas(得克萨斯)


  D. The Central States (13)

  25.Wisconsin (威斯康星) 26.Illinois(伊利诺斯)

  27.Kentucky(肯塔基) 28.Indiana(印第安那)

  29.Ohio(俄亥俄) 30.Michigan(密执安)

  31.Minnesota(明尼苏达) 32.Iowa(衣阿华)

  33.Missouri(密苏里) 34.North Dakota(北达科他)

  35.South Dakota(南达科他) 36.Nebraska(内布拉斯加)


  E.The Western States (13)

  38.Washington(华盛顿) 39.Oregon(俄勒冈)

  40.California(加利福尼亚) 41.Montana(蒙大拿)

  42.Idaho(爱达荷) 43.Nevada(内华达)

  44.Utah(犹他) 45.Arizona(亚历桑那)

  46.Wyoming(怀俄明) 47.Colorado(科罗拉多)

  48.New Mexico(新墨西哥) 49.Alaska(阿拉斯加)



  Text B   Advertising


  1.attract attention 吸引注意He talked loudly to attract attention.(他大声说话以吸引注意。)

  2.for the most part 在很大程度上,多半These cars, for the most part, are made in China.(这些汽车多半产于中国。)

  3.persuade sb. to do sth. 劝某人做某事be persuaded to do sth. 被劝说做某事The doctor persuaded my father to give up smoking.(医生劝我父亲戒烟。)

  The young man was persuaded to take up that job.(那个年轻人被劝说接受那份工作。)

  4.a large amount of 一大笔He borrowed a large amount of money from the bank.(他向银行借了一大笔钱。)

  5.put out 发布,公布;出版;广播The article was put out in a national magazine to reach a larger audience.(为了能影响更多的读者,文章被登发在一份国家级杂志上。)

  This newspaper is put out every day.(这份报纸每天出版。)

  The weather forecast has just put out a storm.(天气预报刚刚发出了暴风警报。)

  6.be characteristic of 为…所特有,是…的特征Rainy days are characteristic of March.(多雨的日子为三月所特有。)

  7.catch the eye 引人注目The beautiful blue dress in the window caught her eye when she passed the store.(她经过那家商店时,橱窗里漂亮的兰色连衣裙吸引了她。)

  8.identify with 与一致;认为…等同于;跟…发生共鸣,同情;(无意识地)仿效His idea identifies with mine.(他的观点和我的观点相同。)

  Never identify personal opinions with facts.(切莫把个人观点与事实等同起来。)

  All the money came from those who identified with him.(所有的钱都来自于那些同情他的人。)

  Children usually identify themselves with their parents.(孩子往往会仿效自己的父母。)

  9.carry over 继续下去,遗留下来The report was carried over to the next page.(报告转入下一页。)

  His habit carries over from his childhood. (他的习惯从小保留至今。)

  10.as well as 和,也Women, as well as men, have the right to work.(妇女和男人一样有工作的权利。)

  11.over and over again 反复He mentioned the incident over and over again, which really bored me to death.(他反复提及那件事,真把我烦死了。)

  12.put up with 忍受Both water pollution and air pollution are becoming more and more serious but we have to put up with them at the moment.(水污染和空气污染都在变得越来越严重,但是我们暂时只好忍着。)

  13.be responsible for 为…负责It is not yet clear who should be responsible for the accident.(谁该对这起事故负责现在还不清楚。)

  14.decide on 决定,选定They decided on their plan of action after hours of discussion.(经过数小时的讨论,他们决定了行动计划。)

  15.be involved in 参与,介入He quitted his job as he no longer wanted to be involved in politics.(他不想再介入政治便辞去了工作。)