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  一、词汇 (Vocabulary) (30 points, 1 point for each)

  I. Match the words from Column A with the definitions from Column B

  A B

  1. effective a. see clearly,prove something true

  2. counter b. a machine that carries people or things from place to place

  3. inattentiveness c. change of voice in level

  4. product d. an out-dated idea or expression

  5. identify e. a table where people are served in a shop, bank, hotel, etc.

  6. vehicle f. something Produced in a factory or on a farm

  7. cliché g. in a pleasant or encouraging way

  8. strengthen h. having a noticeable effect

  9. inflection i. giving no attention

  10. favorably j. make something strong or stronger

  II. Study each sentence carefully and choose A,B,C or D that has the closest meaning to the underlined word or phrase.

  1. …but suspicion fell on Islamic militants who have been waging violent campaign to overthrow the secular Egyptian Government.

  A. continuing in B. beginning in C. engaging in D. struggling in

  2. Harry Paulinanas, 23, also from Sydney, said he was still stunned hours after

  the attack.

  A. surprised B. shocked C. worried D. unconscious

  3. The windscreen and five of its windows had been shattered by the gunfire.

  A. broken B. scattered C. shot D. blown away

  4. Inside, scores of Egyptian officials shouted orders and questions as they herded a crowd of frightened tourists into the restaurant.

  A. looked after B. feeded C. drove D. took

  5. As they filed by, they passed a bottle of water still intact that lay in a pool of


  A. untouched B. complete C. broken D. undamaged

  6. Her frail legs were covered with shrapnel and glass wounds.

  A. injured B. front C. broken D. weak

  7. Radical groups have in the past targeted foreign tourists in an effort to cripple the country‘s tourist industry.

  A. aimed at B. directed towards C. shot at D. made a goal of

  8. The spate of shootings had appeared to be easing recently…

  A. relaxing B. weakening

  C. feeling at home D. becoming less tight

  9 … however, with attacks mainly confined to tourists visiting the south of the country.

  A. limited to B. connected with C. held onto D. shut up

  10. The pilgrims caught up in yesterday‘s attack had started their journey in Athens and continued to Jerusalem before arriving in Cairo.

  A. captured by B. stopped by

  C. held up with D. involved in

  III. Scan through Reading Passage 1 and find the words which have the same or similar meanings to the definitions below.

  Note: The numbers in the brackets refer to the numbers of paragraphs in

  the Reading Passage.

  1.- (1) something that can not be explained or understood

  2.- (1) power and skill, esp. to do, think, make etc.

  3.- (2) send over some distance

  4.- (3) direct the course of

  5.- (4) an instrument for showing direction

  6.- (5) exactly correct

  7.- (6) find the size, length, amount, etc.

  8.- (7) change in position or direction

  9.- (8) trust

  10.- (8) beyond what is usual or necessary

  Reading Passage 1

  1. Science seems to be getting closer to answering a very old mystery. Homing pigeons can be taken hundred of miles from their home. When they are let go to fly again, they find their way home. Because of this special ability to find home, pigeons have been used as messengers for hundreds of years.

  2. Today people even keep homing pigeons for racing as a sport. The birds are shipped to some chosen place a few hundred miles away. Then all of them are let go together. The winner is the bird that goes home first. A good racer can make it home 500 miles away in a single day.

  3. The mystery of the homing pigeon is in how it navigates and how it finds home. It may be taken away in a covered-up cage, even a cage that is turned round and round to purposely mix up any sense of direction. To get home, it must fly over the country that it has never seen before.

  4. Suppose this were to happen to you  What would you need to find your way home (besides a good pair of legs)  I think I would ask for a compass, which always points north, to help find direction. I would want a map. If a map shows where my home is, then I can use the compass to point me in the direction toward home. What we are talking about shows the two parts of the problem of the homing pigeon. Much of the study of homing pigeons leads to the idea that pigeons need the same kinds of information. They need to know how to tell direction and they need something like a map to tell which direction is toward home.

  5. The first part seems to be pretty well answered, and we know of two ways that pigeons tell direction. First, they use the sun. Just getting rough direction from the sun is easy. It rises somewhere toward the east and sets somewhere toward the west. Getting accurate directions from the sun take more care. You need to pay attention to the time of the year. Then you need to watch the path of the sun closely at each hour of the day. To tell direction accurately from the sun, a person need to know the exact time.

  6. All plants and animals that have been studied carefully (including the human ) seem to have built-in clocks. These biological clocks, as they are called, usually are not quite exact in measuring time. However, they work pretty well because they are reset each day, maybe when the sun comes up.

  7. Do pigeons use their biological clocks to help them find direction from the sun  We can keep pigeons in a room lighted only by lamps. And we can time the lighting to make their artificial days start at some different time form the real outside day. After a while we have shifted their clocks. Now we take them far away from home and let them go on a sunny day. Most of them start out as if they know just which way to go, but choose a wrong direction. They have picked a direction that would be correct for the position of the sun and the time of day according to their shifted clocks.

  8. We have talked about one of the more complex experiments that leads to the belief that homing pigeons can tell directions by the sun. What happens when the sky is darkly overcast by clouds and no one can see where the sun is  Then the pigeons still find their way home. The same experiment we talked about has been repeated many times on sunny days and the result was always the same. But on very overcast days those clock-shifted pigeons are just as good as normal pigeons in starting out in the right directions. So it seems that pigeons also have some extra sense of directions to use when they cannot see the sun.

  二、阅读理解 (Reading comprehension) (30 points, 1 point for each)

  I. All the statements are closely related to Reading Passage 2. Skim over this passage and decide whether they are True or False. Write a “T” before true statements and an “F” before false ones.

  1. The first American astronaut to walk in space must have performed this feat in 1965.

  2. Before walking in outer space, astronauts have to learn how to control the movements of their bodies in an environment completely different form that on earth.

  3. Sputnik is the name of the first man-made satellite launched in space in 1858.

  4. According to the article, one of the reasons that a satellite can make a complete revolution round the earth in a much shorter period of time than the moon is that a satellite travels closer to the earth.

  5. It was probably in 1960 that the first spaceship containing a man was launched into space and made a short but successful flight.

  Reading Passage 2

  1. The whole world seemed to be black, black nothingness. The sky was black with bright, shining stars that never twinkled. The sun, a white, burning disk, seemed to hang in the black velvet of the surrounding heavens. This was the scene that spread before the eyes of the first astronaut who left his spaceship to walk in outer space. The name of the Russian astronaut who performed this feat was Leonov, and the date of his walk in space was March 18, 1965. Several months later a similar feat was performed by the first American astronaut to walk in space. Both of these space walkers had spent months previous to their flight learning how to control their movements under the strange conditions which exist in space. Wearing their thick space suits, they learned to deal with an environment where there is neither weight or gravity, neither up nor down.

  2. We do not realize how much we depend on the earth‘s gravity until we are deprived of it. Then our feet no longer stay on the ground, we float around in the air, and the slightest touch may send us drifting off in the opposite direction.

  3. In the laboratories where astronauts are trained for their journey, they are subjected to conditions that resemble those of flight. It takes time for them to prepare for the great changes that occur in space. When the spaceship leaves the earth at tremendous speed, the astronauts feel as if they are being crushed against the spaceship floor. Later, when they leave the zone of the earth‘s gravitation, they are unable to stay in one place. Simple actions, such as eating and drinking, become very difficult to perform. You may get an inkling of what the astronauts have to deal with if you try to drink a glass of water while standing on your head or while just lying down.

  4. The beginnings of man‘s conquest of space took place in 1958, seven years before Leonov’s trip. The first successful launching of Sputnik demonstrated that it was indeed possible to send objects far enough out of range of earth‘s gravity so that they would not fall back to earth. Rather, such objects could be forced to revolve about the earth, just as the moon does. However, while the moon is so far from earth that it takes it a month to revolve around the earth, man-made satellites, which are closer to earth, can make a complete revolution in a few hours.

  5. It was three years after the first satellite launching that a spaceship containing a man made a successful flight. The flight lasted less than two hours, but it pointed the way to future developments.

  II. Read Reading Passages 3 and 4. Read the two passages fast and answer questions 1—10 (Reading Passage 3) and questions 11-20 (Reading Passage 4)

  1. What is the primary purpose of the IWC

  A. To protect their whaling industry.

  B. To protect whales from extinction.

  C. To limit the number of whales that may be killed per year.

  2. Paragraph 2 implies that a large number of bowhead whales were killed in the nineteenth century because ______.

  A. they are slow swimmers

  B. they were abundant in the Bering Sea

  C. they are bigger and, therefore, better targets

  3. Why can‘t the IWC enforce its regulations

  A. Because countries interested in commercial whaling founded the

  organization themselves.

  B. Because it is only a conservationist group, which has no laws or armies.

  C. Because it is not so strong as those countries such as the United States, Japan and the Soviet Union.

  4. According to Paragraph 3 ______.

  A. the number of countries involved in commercial whaling had decreased

  B. the IWC has been steadily increasing its quotas

  C. Japan and the Soviet Union support large cuts in whale quotas

  5. Japan and the Soviet Union hesitate to disregard the IWC regulations because ______.

  A. they want to preserve endangered species

  B. public pressure in the United States has had serious consequences

  C. their national economies are dependent upon whaling.

  6. Which of the following statements is true

  A. The bowhead whale is a new source of food for Eskimos.

  B. It took many years before the bowhead whale completely recovered

  form its initial slaughter.

  C. Even minimal hunting may be devastating for the bowhead whale.

  7. The IWC failed to ban hunting of the bowhead whale mostly for the reason

  that ______.

  A. the United States government protested it loudly

  B. the United States laws already limit the number of bowhead whales that may be killed per year

  C. Alaskan Eskimos are strongly opposed to the ban

  8. The Pribilof Islands ______.

  A. are the year-round home of the northern fur seal

  B. were previously owned by Russia

  C. were discovered by a Russian whaling ship

  9. The treaty signed in 1911 regarding the northern fur seal ______.

  A. restrict seal hunting

  B. bans female seal hunting

  C. resulted in the near extinction of the fur seal

  10. In this article, the author tells the reader ______.

  A. the consequences of whaling in Alaska

  B. seal hunting on the Pribilof Islands

  C. how man has endangered seals and whales

  11. In Paragraph 1, the author uses the term Bayesian analysis ______.

  A. to explain the complication of information

  B. to state the importance of information

  C. to show the difficulties to calculate information

  12. The best information given in Paragraph 3 is that ______.

  A. strategic planning is a less direct use of information, but is the most

  important application in the business world

  B. not used in the strategic sense, the information is often called intelligence

  C. intelligence enables the researcher to recognize potential threats and opportunities.

  13. From the information given in Paragraph 4, decide which statements is

  NOT true.

  A. Information can help the researcher to recognize potential threats.

  B. Information can help the managers in decision making.

  C. Information can prevent the managers from breaking the law.

  14. The best information Paragraphs 1,2,3 and 4 give the readers is ______.

  A. about the advantages of information

  B. about the two valuable applications of information

  C. about the value and importance of information

  15. Which paragraphs discusses the essential application of information

  A. Paragraphs 1 and 2

  B. Paragraphs 2 and 3

  C. Paragraphs 3 and 4

  16. “ The sheer mass of available data makes research a frustrating task.” This statement ______.

  A. proves that too many data make research a hard job

  B. implies that too many cooks spoil the soup

  C. show that too many data frustrate the research

  17. In Paragraph 8, the first sentence means that ______.

  A. the hardest thing is on what standard to assess the cost and benefits of


  B. the hardest thing is using what measurement to evaluate the benefits and cost

  C. the hardest thing is how to make the benefits of the information worth their cost.

  18. “Another consideration is whether the information addresses a recurring problem or can be applied to other situations in the future.” This statements means that ______.

  A. people have to see if the information can speak to another problem in future.

  B. people have to think if the information can set itself to work at repeated problem and be used for future.

  C. people have to see if the information can arouse a repeated problem and be used for future.

  19. “Each researcher constantly weighs the costs and benefits of information, if only on an unconscious level.” The underlined part means that ______.

  A. the researcher often calculate the costs and benefits of information

  B. the researcher often puts costs and benefits on information

  C. the researcher often puts more emphases on information

  20. Paragraph 5, 6, 7 and 8 mainly discuss ______.

  A. the associated costs of information

  B. the fragment and boundless resource of information

  C. the costs and problems of information

  Reading Passage 3

  1. As spring comes to the rough Bering Sea and the gigantic ice floes begin to melt, the water becomes alive with migrating animals. Both whales, the graceful giants of the deep, and sleek, gray seals can be seen swimming northward through narrow channels in the shifting ice. These animals, which have long been threatened by encroaching civilizations, may soon disappear from the Bering and other seas around the world unless protective measures are taken.

  2. For centuries whales, intelligent, air-breathing mammals, were abundant in the waters off the Alaskan coast; however, their isolated sanctuary was invaded by hunters in 1848 when an American whaling ship discovered the rich whaling area. During the next 60 years, whalers, in search of bone and oil, almost destroyed the entire whale population of the Bering Sea. Particularly harmed by the unrestricted commercial whaling were the slow-moving bowhead whales; so many of them were killed that the species never recovered. At present, the population of the bowhead is estimated at less than 3,000. According to many conservationists, it is the most endangered whale on earth.

  3. In an attempt to avoid the eradication of other whale species, countries interested in commercial whaling established the International Whaling Commission

  (IWC) in 1946. The IWC limits the number of whales that may be killed per year, and since 1973 the Commission has been steadily reducing its quotas. Today, only about seven countries still engage in commercial whaling. The reductions recommended by the IWC have brought loud cries of protest from countries with large whaling industries, especially Japan and the Soviet Union. These countries fear that their industries will not be able to survive such drastic cuts and that their national economies will suffer as a result. Although the IWC has no means of enforcing its regulations, since most whaling takes place in international water, the Japanese and the Soviets are reluctant to ignore them. Previous decisions to disregard whale quotas resulted in costly boycotts of Japanese and Russian products by American conservationists. The IWC would like to ban hunting of the endangered bowhead; however, this proposal has created a great deal of controversy in the United States due to strong protests from Alaskan Eskimos. The natives of Alaska resent the attempt to take away their hunting rights. For over 1,000 years, they have depended upon whales for the meat and raw materials necessary for survival in the Arctic. Present United States laws already strictly limit the number of whales that may be killed by each village; nevertheless, the population of the bowhead whale is critically low ― perhaps too low to survive even minimal hunting by the Eskimos

  4. Another animal of the Bering Sea that is faced with possible extinction is the northern fur seal, valued highly by hunters for its soft and durable fur. The Pribilof Islands, 200 miles north of the Aleutian Islands off the Alaskan coast, are the seal‘s summer breeding grounds. For centuries the isolated islands have been the annual goal for thousands of migrating fur seals, some coming from as far south as the waters off southern California. The seals were undisturbed by humans until 1786 when the islands were discovered by Gerasim Pribilof, a Russian fur trader. Recognizing the potential profit, Pribilof immediately sent his men ashore with orders to kill as many seals as they could skin during the summer. Over the next fifty years, Russian hunters proceeded to kill an estimated 80 percent of the northern fur seal population, reducing to about 600,000 a head that had probably numbered close to 3 million. This mass slaughter did not stop until the herd had decreased to the point where commercial hunting was no longer profitable.

  5. During the subsequent lull in hunting the seal population made a good, although temporary, recovery. By the time the United States bought Alaska, including the Pribilof Islands, from Russian in 1867, the seal herd had increased to around 2.5 million. This recovery resulted in a revival of hunting on the islands and at sea; however, fur hunters from around the world shot at the animals indiscriminately, killing even pregnant and nursing females, and once again the species neared extinction.

  6. In 1911, only 200,000 seals remained when the United States, Japan, Russian, and Canada signed a treaty that forbade the killing of female seals. The agreement, which is still being followed today, saved the northern fur seal from immediate extinction.

  7. In the United States, a growing public awareness of these endangered species

  has caused a drop in the demand for seal fur and a ban on the importation of whale products; nevertheless, this spring hunters around the world will kill thousands of seals and whales. The furs of the seals will appear in stores as sealskin coats and gloves, and the whales will be transformed into such diverse products as steaks, soap, pet food, glue, crayons, and suntan lotion. Concerned individuals and conservationist groups, such as Greenpeace, continue to argue that it is absurd to use endangered species for such products, especially when suitable alternatives exist. Consequently, they are demanding that further restrictions be imposed on whale and seal hunting in the hopes that the 200-year exploitation of these animals by civilization will come to an end and that seals and whales will once again be allowed to roam the seas undisturbed.

  Reading Passage 4

  1. Information is generally esteemed as a valuable commodity ― knowing something is usually preferable to not knowing it. But beyond contributing to the individual‘s fund of knowledge, why does information have such instinct worth  Simply stated, information has the power to deduce uncertainty. The more we know about a situation, the more certain we are about possible outcomes. The more certainty we possess, the less risk we face in making decisions and planning for the future. Economists have even applied a technique known as Bayesian analysis to information problems, enabling them to assess the dollar value of knowledge in a given setting.

  2. Information essentially has two valuable applications: problem solving and strategic planning. Problem solving is the more obvious use ― applying information to specific decision-making situations. Research can unearth potential problems which might otherwise go undetected and help define their full scope. Information can reveal possible solutions to the problem, suggest variations to more obvious alternatives, determine what is physically possible, and discover what other people have done in similar situations. Furthermore, information help the decision-maker assess the probable outcomes of various alternatives, the advantages and disadvantages to each, and even whether the proposed solution has worked in the past. In summary, information can provide new ideas, verify what the researcher believes to be true, prevent costly mistake, and in the very best case, actually solve the problem at hand.

  3. Strategic planning is a less direct use of information, but is possibly the most important application in the business world. Information is an essential component of sound long-range planning. When used in this strategic sense, information is often called intelligence. Intelligence is gathered by collecting individual bits of data and piecing them together to form clear patterns. By its very nature, intelligence relies on sources outside the organization; it is generated by scanning the environment for useful information. Intelligence enables the researcher to recognize potential threats and opportunities before it is too late to do something about them. Change, whether political, social, economic, or technological, poses the greatest challenge to management‘s ability to plan for the future. The use of information for strategic purposes largely determines whether the firm anticipates change, or is controlled by it.

  4. Scanning the environment supports strategic planning activities in many ways. Information can be used to evaluate the marketplace by surveying changing tastes and needs, monitoring buyers‘ intentions and attitudes, and assessing the characteristics of the market. Information is critical in keeping tabs on the competition by watching new product developments, shifts in market share, individual company performance, and overall industry trends. Intelligence helps managers anticipate changes in the legal and political environment, including the impact of proposed regulations, tax laws; and import restrictions. Business firms also need to scan the environment for economic conditions in the United States and abroad, including interest rates, foreign exchange rates, and economic growth. In short, intelligence can provide answers to two key business questions: how am I doing  And where am I headed  Information thus reduces uncertainty in both its applications. In decision making, information prevents the uncertainty of indecision. In strategic planning, it reduces the uncertainty of an unknown future.

  5. For all its value, information carries with it numerous problems and costs. To begin with, information is a boundless resource, and no one can acquire all the information needed. The sheer mass of available data makes research a frustrating task. Most information unearthed in a search is irrelevant to the user‘s needs, as anyone who has ever researched a college term paper can testify. Furthermore, information is usually fragmented published piecemeal in a variety of sources and seldom found in precisely the required form.

  6. These difficulties are compounded by the time research can take. Few researchers have the luxury of unlimited time; the scope of a search is almost always determined by the deadline established for the project. Another frustrating problem is deciding how to begin. The less we know about a topic, the harder it is to proceed. A central paradox of information gathering is how to determine what is needed when the researcher has no clear understanding of what is available. Similarly, one often doesn‘t know what information is lacking until it’s actually needed, at which point it may be too late.

  7. These concerns are important, because information always has a cost associated with it. Whether the user hires a consultant, purchases expensive publications, or merely uses his or her own time to track down the answer, each method has a direct cost. Information also has such indirect costs as delayed decisions, wrong divisions, and foregone opportunities. Estimated cost can often be misleading; people frequently believe that insignificant questions will be simple to research, when the exact opposite is usually true. “Big questions” are often easiest to answer because someone else has already taken the time to research them.

  8. The hardest question in business research is determining at what point the benefits of the information justify their cost. Benefits may be hard to assess, or may accrue long after the information is first obtained. Perfect information is preferable to imperfect; yet in real world settings, perfect information does not exist. Researchers must assess the reliability and accuracy of what they uncover and decide whether to accept it or pursue additional facts. At what point is continued searching no longer prudent  As already suggested, time constraints can

  make this a moot point. When time is not a factor, however, the most appropriate indicator is the magnitude of the consequences. The potential profit or loss to the organization is an excellent gauge of the information‘s importance. Another consideration is whether the information addresses a recurring problem or can be applied to other situations in the future. In the real world, two other matters must be kept in mind. First, the problem at hand is usually not the only task vying for the researcher’s attention; and second, the knowledge, skills and interests of the researcher also determine the path an investigation will take. In the final analysis, all these factors help determine how much research will be done. Each researcher constantly weighs the costs and benefits of information, if only on a unconscious level.

  III. Read Reading Passage 5 carefully and answer the following questions by choosing the best alternative (A, B, or C) under each. Think carefully and, if necessary, refer back to Reading passage 5 before you make your choice.

  1. In ancient caves we can expect to find _____.

  A. maps of battles B. telegraph C. carrier pigeons

  2. Computer have greatly extended _____.

  A. the range of our senses B. the power of our mind

  C. both a and b

  3. Computers are mainly used _____.

  A. to proceeds information B. to accept information

  C. to distribute information

  4. Computers can be divided into two general groups according _____.

  A. the types of information they accept

  B. the types of information they can process

  C. the way in which they proceed information

  5. Hourglass is mentioned to illustrate the working mechanism of _____.

  A. digital computers B. analog computers C. neither A nor B

  Reading Passage 5

  1. Since their first appearance on earth, men have gathered information and have attempted to pass useful ideas to other men. The carving of word-pictures on the walls of ancient caves as well as hieroglyphics on stone tablets represent some of men‘s earliest efforts to convey information. Scenes of hunting, maps of battles, and the stories of heroes were put down for all to see.

  2. But as civilizations grew more complex better methods of communication were needed. The written word, carrier pigeons, the telegraph, and many other devices carried ideas faster and faster from man to man. In recent years one type of machine, the electronic computer, has become increasingly important in the lives of all the people in the industrialized nations of the world. Computers are now widely used aids for communication, calculation, and other activities. Their effect becomes more important every day.

  3. Man has always been interested in extending the range of his senses and the power of his mind. Through the years, he has invented many instruments to help him see better and understand more. The telescope, for example, was invented to allow him to look at faraway objects. To see the very small things in the world, the microscope was developed. Radio, telephone, and telegraph are means by which man has expended the range of his senses of hearing and speech.

  4. Although a sharp dividing line between types of computers is not always easy to see, computers are usually divided into two broad groups: digital and analog. Digital computers work by using specific information which is usually in the form of numbers. Analog computers, on the other hand, ,usually process continuous information.

  5. To explain this difference, let us consider two devices which handle information in a manner similar to the two types of computers. A turnstile, which has a computer attached to it, can help to explain the way a digital computer works. Each time a person passes through the turnstile, the indicator quickly jumps from one number to another. Each number registered is separate and specific.

  6. The continuous change in the level of sand in an hourglass as time passes makes it an analog device. Perhaps the first analog computation was the use of graphs for the solution of surveying problems.

  三、回答问题 (Questions)(20 points, 1 point for each)

  All the questions are based on Reading Passage 5. Answer the questions briefly and pay attention to the words, grammar and sentence structures in your answer. Be sure to answer them with your own words.

  1. How did primitive men convey information

  2. How did men try to extend the range of his senses and the power of his mind

  四、翻译 (Translation)(20 points, 1 point for each)

  Translate paragraph 3 (Reading Passage 5) into Chinese.



  一、词汇 (每小题1分,共30分)

  I. 1-5: h e I f a 6-10: b d j c g

  II. 1-5: C B A C D 6-10: D C B A D

  III. 1. mystery 2. ability 3. ship 4. navigate 5. compass 6. accurate 7. measure

  8. shift 9. belief 10. extra

  二、阅读理解 (每小题1分,共30分)

  I. 1. T 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F

  II. 1-5: B AB A B 6-10: C CBB C

  11-15: BA A CB 16-20: A CBA C

  Ⅲ。 1. A 2. C 3. A 4. C 5. B

  三、回答问题 (每小题10分,共20分)

  1. They convey information by means of carving word-pictures on the walls of ancient caves and hieroglyphics on stone tablets. They also put down scenes of hunting, maps of battles and the stories of heroes for all to see.

  2. Through the years, man has invented many instruments to extend the range of his senses and the power of his mind, such as telescopes, microscopes, radios, telephones and telegraphs.

  四、翻译 (20分)

  人们一直对拓展其感知范围与增进智能很感兴趣。人们已经发明了许多机器设备来帮助自己观察得更清楚,了解得更多。例如,人们发明了望远镜使之能看到远处的 物体。为了看清世界上极小的事物,人又发明了显微镜。收音机,电话和电报都是人们用以拓展其听觉和说话范围的手段和工具。