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09年自考英语语法基础材料:虚拟语气

2009-06-25 17:36  考试大 【 】【我要纠错

  表示所说的不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而只是一种愿望,假设或猜测。

  1. 表示和现在事实相反的假设:

  He is honest. If he were dishonest, I should not trust him. 他是诚实的。如果他不诚实的话,我就不会信任他。

  He is not alive. If he were alive today, he would be a hero. 他死了。如果他今天活着的话,他会是个英雄。

  If there were no air, there would be no living things. 如果没有空气,就没有生物。

  If there were no gravity, we should not be able to walk. 如果没有引力,我们就不能行走。

  In fact, I am not there. If I were there, I could solve the problem by myself. 事实上,我没有在那里。如果我在那里的话,我自己就能解决这个问题。

  2. 表示和过去事实相反的假设:

  If there had been no air, there would have been no living things. 如果当初没有空气,也就没有生物了。

  You didn‘t come here yesterday. If you had come here yesterday, you would have seen him.

  昨天你没有来。如果昨天你到这里来了的话,你就看见他了。

  If had not obeyed him, I might have been punished. 要是我那时不服从他的话,我可能受处分。

  3.和将来事实相反的假设:

if从 句 

主 句 

should+ 动词原形 should(would)+动词原形 
were to+动词原形 
动词过去式 

  If he should be here tomorrow, he would call me up. 万一他明天来这里的话,他会给我打电话的。(来的可能性很小)

  If it were to rain tomorrow, the match would be cancelled. 万一明天下雨的话,就将取消比赛。(下雨的可能性极小)

  4.虚拟语气的一些其他用法

  (1)在动词with, suggest, demand, insist 和order等后面的宾语从句中,一般用虚拟语气(在用should+动词原形时,should常可省略,而只用动词原形,且用于所有的人称)。例如:

  I suggest that we (should) repair the machine at once. 我提议我们立刻修这台机器。

  The leader of the team ordered that all (should) finish the work by supper time. 队长命令晚饭前都必须完成工作。

  He insisted that all (should) attend the meeting. 他坚持大家都要参加那个会议。

  (2)在“It is time(that) +从句”的结构中,从句的谓语动词用过去式,表示“该做某事了,时间已经有些晚了”的意思。这也是一种虚拟语气。例如:It is time we went to work. 我们该去工作了。

  (3)在由as if, so that, in order that, as though等引导的状语从句中,也往往用虚拟语气形式。例如Annie treated me exactly as if I were a seeing and hearing child. 安妮对待我就好象我是一个能看能听的孩子似的。

  The Emperor gave the cheats some gold in order that they might begin their work at once. 皇帝给了骗子们一些金子以便他们能立刻开始工作。

  (4)虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法:在It is necessary (natural, strange, important) that等句型中,后面主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”结构。例如:

  It is strange that he should have been late for the meeting. 真奇怪,他开会迟到了。

  It is necessary that we should take the box away at once. 我们有必要立即把这只箱子搬走。

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