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08年10月自考英语写作常识

2008-07-10 09:00   【 】【我要纠错

  一、图形种类及概述法

  泛指一份数据图表:a data graph or chart or diagram or illustration or table

  饼图:pie chart

  直方图或柱形图:bar chart or histogram

  趋势曲线图:line chart or curve diagram

  表格图:table

  流程图或过程图:flow chart or sequence diagram

  程序图:processing or procedures diagram

  以下是一些较常用的描述用法

  The table or chart diagram or graph shows (that)

  According to the table or chart diagram or graph

  As (is)shown in the table or chart diagram or graph

  As can be seen from the table or chart or diagram or graph or figures,

  figures or statistics shows (that)……

  It can be seen from the figures or statistics

  We can see from the figures or statistics

  It is clear from the figures or statistics

  It is apparent from the figures or statistics

  table or chart or diagram or graph figures (that)……

  table or chart or diagram or graph shows or describes or illustrates how

  二、data的具体表达法

  data在某一个时间段固定不变:fixed in time

  在一系列的时间段中转变:changes over time

  持续变化的data在不同情况下:

  增加:increase or raise or rise or go up

  减少:decrease or grow down or drop or fall ……

  波动:fluctuate or rebound or undulate or wave ……

  稳定:remain stable or stabilize or level off ……

  最常用的两种表达法:

  动词 + 副词形式(Verb+Adverb form)

  形容词 + 名词形式(Adjective+Noun form)

  1. Verb+Adverb form

  The number of XXX

  +increase or jump or rise or decrease or drop or fall or fluctuate……

  +insignificantly or significantly or slightly or suddenly or rapidly or dramatically or sharply or steeply or steadily or gradually or slowly……

  +from (第一时间)to (第二时间)or between (第一时间)and (第二时间)

  2. Adjective+Noun form

  There was a (very)sudden or rapid or dramatic or significant or sharp or steep or steady or gradual or slow or slight

  +increase or jump or rise or decrease or drop or fall or fluctuation (注意:上述很多词不可用于修饰fluctuation)

  +in the number of XXX from (第一时间)to (第二时间)or between (第一时间)and (第二时间)

  描述稳定的data:

  The number of XXX remained steady or stable from (第一时间)to (第二时间)or between (第一时间) and (第二时间)

  The number of XXX stayed the same from (第一时间)to (第二时间)or between (第一时间)and (第二时间)

  There was little change or hardly any change or no change in the number of XXX from from (第一时间)to (第二时间)or between (第一时间)and (第二时间)

  描述不同状态的data

  Noun form:

  steady drop or sharp rise peak or dramatic fall or sharp drop

  Verbal form:

  (to) bottom out or (to) reach the bottom or (to) increase gradually or (to) reach a plateau or (to) remain steady

  描述the highest point以及the lowest point

  高点极值:

  The monthly profit or The figures or The situation ……

  +peaked in (月份 or 年)<准确时间点用at XXX> at XXX% or XXX(极点data)

  或者reached a peak or a high point at XXX% or XXX(极点data)

  低点极值:

  XXX bottomed out or reached

  +rock or the bottom or a low point

  或者hit a trough

  此外,在描述过程中还有很多的conjunctional words or sentences,最常用的固定搭配如下:

  并列:as well as(句首 or 中),also,as well(句尾),either,neither,too,moreover, furthermore,in addition,additionally,besides,what''''s more,apart from ……

  举例:for example,for instance,to illustrate,as an illustration,in particular,particularly,especially

  事实:as a matter of fact,in fact,actually,as long as,so long as ……

  雷同 or 近似:similarly,likewise(句首 or 尾),at the same time,equally ……

  转折:however,whereas,nevertheless,nonetheless,though,although,even though,while,yet,on the contrary,contrarily,in contrast,conversely,on the other hand,unlikely,in stead (of),in spite of, despite of ……

  原因与结果

  1. cause-suggestion (几乎不常用)

  since or now that ……; I hope that……

  because of or on account of or owing to or thanks to + (doing)sth,I hope that……

  2. cause-effect (较常用)

  XXX lead to or bring about or result in or account for ……

  (一个句子), therefore or thus or hence or as a result or consequently or (and)so ……

  3. effect-cause (较常用)

  XXX be caused by or result from or be the result of or be the effect of or be the consequence of ……

  (一个句子),because ……

  it is adj. that ……

  it is unimaginable that ……

  it is undeniable that ……

  it is interesting to discover that ……

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