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自考《英语写作》大汇总(二)

2007-01-05 16:13   【 】【我要纠错

  第二部分:写作常识

  一、图形种类及概述法:

  泛指一份数据图表:a data graph/chart/diagram/illustration/table

  饼图:pie chart

  直方图或柱形图:bar chart/histogram

  趋势曲线图:line chart/curve diagram

  表格图:table

  流程图或过程图:flow chart/sequence diagram

  程序图:processing/procedures diagram

  以下是一些较常用的描述用法

  The table/chart diagram/graph shows (that)

  According to the table/chart diagram/graph

  As (is) shown in the table/chart diagram/graph

  As can be seen from the table/chart/diagram/graph/figures,

  figures/statistics shows (that)……

  It can be seen from the figures/statistics

  We can see from the figures/statistics

  It is clear from the figures/statistics

  It is apparent from the figures/statistics

  table/chart/diagram/graph figures (that) ……

  table/chart/diagram/graph shows/describes/illustrates how

  二、data的具体表达法

  data在某一个时间段固定不变:fixed in time

  在一系列的时间段中转变:changes over time

  持续变化的data在不同情况下:

  增加:increase/raise/rise/go up ……

  减少:decrease/grow down/drop/fall ……

  波动:fluctuate/rebound/undulate/wave ……

  稳定:remain stable/stabilize/level off ……

  最常用的两种表达法:

  动词 + 副词形式(Verb+Adverb form)

  形容词 + 名词形式(Adjective+Noun form)

  1. Verb+Adverb form

  The number of XXX

  +increase/jump/rise/decrease/drop/fall/fluctuate……

  +insignificantly/significantly/slightly/suddenly/rapidly/dramatically/sharply/steeply/steadily/gradually/slowly……

  +from (第一时间) to (第二时间)/between (第一时间) and (第二时间)

  2. Adjective+Noun form

  There was a (very) sudden/rapid/dramatic/significant/sharp/steep/steady/gradual/slow/slight

  +increase/jump/rise/decrease/drop/fall/fluctuation (注意:上述很多词不可用于修饰fluctuation)

  +in the number of XXX from (第一时间) to (第二时间)/between (第一时间) and (第二时间)

  描述稳定的data:

  The number of XXX remained steady/stable from (第一时间) to (第二时间)/between (第一时间) and (第二时间)

  The number of XXX stayed the same from (第一时间) to (第二时间)/between (第一时间) and (第二时间)

  There was little change/hardly any change/no change in the number of XXX from from (第一时间) to (第二时间)/between (第一时间) and (第二时间)

  描述不同状态的data

  Noun form:

  steady drop/sharp rise peak/dramatic fall/sharp drop

  Verbal form:

  (to) bottom out/(to) reach the bottom/(to) increase gradually/(to) reach a plateau/(to) remain steady

  描述the highest point以及the lowest point

  高点极值:

  The monthly profit/The figures/The situation ……

  +peaked in (月份/年) <准确时间点用at XXX> at XXX%/XXX(极点data)

  或者reached a peak/a high point at XXX%/XXX(极点data)

  低点极值:

  XXX bottomed out/reached

  +rock/the bottom/a low point

  或者hit a trough

  此外,在描述过程中还有很多的conjunctional words/sentences,最常用的固定搭配如下:

  并列: as well as(句首/中), also, as well(句尾), either, neither, too, moreover, furthermore, in addition, additionally, besides, what's more, apart from ……

  举例: for example, for instance, to illustrate, as an illustration, in particular, particularly, especially

  事实: as a matter of fact, in fact, actually, as long as, so long as ……

  雷同/近似:similarly, likewise(句首/尾), at the same time, equally ……

  转折: however, whereas, nevertheless, nonetheless, though, although, even though, while, yet, on the contrary, contrarily, in contrast, conversely, on the other hand, unlikely, in stead (of), in spite of, despite of ……

  原因与结果

  1. cause-suggestion (几乎不常用)

  since/now that ……; I hope that……

  because of/on account of/owing to/thanks to + (doing) sth, I hope that……

  2. cause-effect (较常用)

  XXX lead to/bring about/result in/ account for ……

  (一个句子), therefore/thus/hence/as a result/consequently/(and) so ……

  3. effect-cause (较常用)

  XXX be caused by/result from/be the result of/be the effect of/be the consequence of ……

  (一个句子), because ……

  it is adj. that ……

  it is unimaginable that ……

  it is undeniable that ……

  it is interesting to discover that ……

  三、其它相关常用词(组)

  1. 主章开头

  图表类型:table; chart; diagram; graph; column chart; pie graph

  描述:show; describe; illustrate; can be seen from; clear; apparent; reveal; represent

  内容:figure; statistic; number; percentage; proportion

  2. 表示数据

  一般:have 10%; at 10%; over 10%

  最高(低)点:peaked; reached a peak/high point

  bottomed out; reached the bottom

  变化:recover 略有回升; increase; jump; rise/rose; climb

  decrease; fall/fell; drop; decline; reduce

  fluctuate 浮动,摇摆不定

  remained steady/stable; stay the same; little/hardly any /no change

  变化程度:sudden/suddenly 突然的,意外的

  rapid/rapidly 迅速的,飞快的,险峻的

  dramatic/dramatically 戏剧性的,生动的

  significant/significantly 有意义的,重大的,重要的

  sharp/sharply 锐利的,明显的,急剧的

  steep/steeply 急剧升降的

  steady/steadily 稳固的,坚定不移的

  gradual/gradually 渐进的,逐渐的

  slow/slowly 缓慢的,不活跃的

  slight/slightly轻微的、略微地

  stable/stably 稳定的

  表示范围:from XXX to XXX; between XXX and XXX; for XXX to XXX多长时间直到

  表示程度:almost adv. 几乎,差不多

  nearly adv. 几乎,密切地

  approximately adv. 近似的,大约

  about adv. 附近, 大约,转向,左右,周围

  just over 刚超过

  over adv. 结束,越过,从头到尾

  exactly adv. 正确地,严密地

  precisely adv. 正好 精确地;清晰地

  比例:20 per cent 20%

  one in three 1/3

  one out of every four 1/4

  3. 其它在描述中的常用到的词

  significant changes 图中一些较大变化

  noticeable trend 明显趋势

  during the same period 在同一时期

  grow/grew 增长

  distribute 分布,区别

  unequally 不相等地

  pronounced 明显的

  average 平均

  no doubt 无疑地

  corresponding adj. 相应的,通讯的

  represent vt. 阐述,表现

  overall 总体上讲

  except 除外

  in the case of adv. 在……的情况下

  in terms of/in respect of/regarding 在……方面

  in contrast 相反,大不相同

  in conclusion adv. 最后,总之

  in comparison 相比之下

  inversely adv. 相反地,倒转地

  in general 通常,大体上,一般而言

  range from

  excessive adj. 过多的,过分的,额外

  lower v.降低,跌落

  elapse vi.(时间)过去,消逝

  category n.种类

  government policy 政府政策

  market forces 市场规率

  measure n. 尺寸,方法,措施 v.估量,调节

  forecast n. 先见,预见 v. 预测

本文转载链接:自考《英语写作》大汇总(二)

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