1. Civil Courts in England and Wales
Magistrates‘ Courts have limited civil jurisdiction， The main courts of civil jurisdiction are County Courts， the High Court deals with the more complicated civil case. Its jurisdiction covers mainly civil and some criminal cases. It has three divisions： （1） the family Division； （2） the Chancery Division； （3） the Queen’s Bench Division.
2. Civil Courts in Scotland
The Civil Courts are the sheriff court and the Court of session.
3. Civil Courts in Northern Ireland
County Court are primarily civil law courts. The magistrates‘ court also deal with certain limited classes of civil cases. The high Court of Justice the superior civil law court.
IV. The Judiciary
There is no ministry of justice in the United Kingdom. Central responsibility lies with the Lord Chancellor the Home Secretary and the Attorney General. In England and Wales， lay magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Lord Chancellor who is advised by committees in each county. The Lord Chancellor recommends the High Court and circuit judges. The highest judicial appointments and made by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister.
The police service for United Kingdom is organized and controlled on a local basis under the Home Secretary and the Scottish and Northern Ireland Secretaries. London‘s Metropolitan Police Force is directly under the control of Home Secretary. Police officers are not allowed to join a trade union or go on strike. They do not normally carry firearms.
VI. Treatment of offenders
The chief aims of the penal system are to deter the potential lawbreaker and to reform the convicted offender.
Capital punishment （ a sentence of death ） for murder has been abolished in the U.K， through proposal for its reinstatement are regularly debated by Parliament， and it remains the penalty for treason and piracy.