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英语国家概况精讲系列(十二)

2007-01-11 16:34   【 】【我要纠错

  英语国家概况精讲系列(十二)

  III. The Chartist Movement (1836-1848)

  宪章运动(1836-1848)

  1. Reasons for parliamentary reforms.

  议会改革的原因

  (1) Power was monopolized by the aristocrats.

  权力由贵族操纵。

  (2) Representation of town and country, and North and South was unfair.

  城镇和农村,北方和南方的代表权极不平等。

  (3) There were also various so-called rotten or pocket boroughs.

  还有各种称之为衰败或口袋选区的选区。

  2.Three Reform Bills

  三个改革法案

  Between 1832 and 1884 three Reform Bills were passed.

  1832年至1884年间通过了三个改革法案。

  a) The Reform Act of 1832 (also called the “Greater Charter of 1832) abolished ”rotten boroughs“, and redistributed parliamentary seats more fairly among the growing tows. It also gave the vote to many householders and tenant‘s, based on the value of their property.

  1832年的《改革法案》(也称为1832年的大宪章)废除了“衰败选区”;在新兴城镇中较为公平地重新分配了议席;以财产价值为基础给予许多屋主和佃家。

  b) The New Poor Law of 1834 forced the poor people into work houses instead of giving them sufficient money to survive in their own homes.

  1834年的新贫困法强迫穷人进工厂,而没有给他们足够的钱在自己的家里生存。

  3.A People‘s Charter

  人民宪章

  There was widespread dissatisfaction with the Reform Act of 1832 and the New Poor Law. In 1836, a group of skilled workers and small shopkeepers formed the London Working Men‘s Association. They drew up a charter of political demands (a People’s Charter) in 1838, with the intention of presenting it to Parliament. It had six points: (1)the vote for all adult males; (2)voting by secret ballot; (3)equal electoral districts; (4)abolition of property qualifications for members of Parliament; (5)payment of members of Parliament; (6)annual Parliaments, with a General Election every June.

  1832年的《改革法案》和《新贫困法》引起了普遍不满。1836年,一群技术工人和小店主组成伦敦工厂联盟。他们于1838年起草了有关政治要求的宪章(人民宪章),想把它呈送给议会。宪章有六点内容:(1)所有成年男子都有选举权;(2)进行无记名投票;(3)平等选区;(4)议员选举废除财产资格要求;(5)议员应有报酬;(6)议会每年六月进行大选。

  4.Results of the Chartist Movement

  宪章运动的结果。

  Chartism failed because of its weak and divided leadership, and its lack of coordination with trade-unionism. The working class still immature, without the leadership of a political party armed with correct revolutionary theory. The Chartist movement was, however, the first nationwide working class movement and drew attention to serious problems. The 6 points were achieved very gradually over the period of 1858-1918, although the sixth has never been practical. Lenin said that Chartism was “the first broad, really mass, politically formed, proletarian revolutionary movement.”

  由于领导层的软弱和分歧,由于缺少与工会的协调,宪章运动失败了。当时的工人阶级还未成熟,没有正确的革命理论武装的政党领导。但是,宪章运动是第一次全国范围的工人阶级运动,引起了对许多严重问题的关注。在1858至1918年间,六项要求逐渐达到,尽管第六项从未成为现实。列宁说宪章运动是“第一个广泛的、真正群众参与的,有政治组织形式的无产阶级革命运动。”

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