When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son， Richard， the regime began to collapse. One of Cromwells generals George Monck， occupied London and arranged for new parliamentary elections. The Parliament thus was elected in 1660 resolved the crisis by asking the late Kings son to return from his exile in France as king Charles II. It was called the Restoration.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe， was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious vies. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II， and appealed to a Protestant king， William of Orange， to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth， with no bloodshed， nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was the most famous of the Catholic conspiracies. On Nov. 5，1605， a few fanatical Catholics attempted to blow King James and his ministers up in the House of Parliament where Guy Fawkes had planted barrels of gun-powder in the cellars. The immediate result was the execution of Fawkes and his fellow-conspirators and imposition of severe anti-Catholic laws. The long-term result has been an annual celebration on Nov. 5， when a bonfire is lit to turn a guy and a firework display is arranged.