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英语国家概况精讲系列(九)

2007-01-11 16:27   【 】【我要纠错
英语国家概况精讲系列(九)

  The Restoration

  王政复辟

  When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son, Richard, the regime began to collapse. One of Cromwells generals George Monck, occupied London and arranged for new parliamentary elections. The Parliament thus was elected in 1660 resolved the crisis by asking the late Kings son to return from his exile in France as king Charles II. It was called the Restoration.

  1658年奥利弗克伦威尔去世,他的儿子理查德继任护国公,政权立即开始瓦解。克伦威尔的一位将军乔治蒙克占领伦敦,安排新的议会选举。1660年选出的议会要求上一任国王的儿子长期流亡地法国回国作国王查尔斯二世,从而解决了危机。这就是所谓的王政复辟。

  The Glorious Revolution of 1688

  1688年光荣革命

  In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious vies. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.

  1685年查尔斯二世去世,由其弟詹姆斯二世继位。詹姆斯二世从小在欧洲流亡长大,是个天主教徒,他希望不放弃个人宗教信仰统治国家。但是1688的英国已不象40年前那样能容忍天主教徒当国王了。英国政客反对詹姆斯二世,他们呼吁信奉新教的国王,奥兰治亲王威谦入侵英国夺取王位。1688年11月15日威廉在托尔比登陆并占领伦敦。这一占领相对平静,既未流血也未处死国王,所以就称为“光荣革命”。

  The Gunpowder Plot of 1605

  1605年

  The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was the most famous of the Catholic conspiracies. On Nov. 5,1605, a few fanatical Catholics attempted to blow King James and his ministers up in the House of Parliament where Guy Fawkes had planted barrels of gun-powder in the cellars. The immediate result was the execution of Fawkes and his fellow-conspirators and imposition of severe anti-Catholic laws. The long-term result has been an annual celebration on Nov. 5, when a bonfire is lit to turn a guy and a firework display is arranged.

  1605年的火药阴谋案是最著名的天主教阴谋。1605年11月5日,几个狂热的天主教徒企图在议会大厦炸死国王和大臣,盖伊福克斯已在地窖放了炸药桶。结果是福克斯和同伙被立即处死,以及更严厉的反天主教法律的颁发。长斯结果是每年11月5日举行庆祝仪式,点燃火堆焚烧盖伊模拟像并燃放烟火。

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