IV.The Hundred Years War and its consequences.
The Hundred Years‘ War refers to the war between England and France that lasted intermittently from 1337 to 1453. The causes of the war were partly territorial and partly economic. The territorial causes were related with the possession by the English kings of the large duchy in France， while the French kings coveted this large slice. The economic causes were connected with cloth manufacturing towns in Flanders， which were the importer of English wool， but they were loyal to the French king politically. Besides， Englands desire to stop France from giving aid to Scots and a growing sense of nationalism were the other causes.
The Englishs being driven out of France is regarded as a blessing for both countries. If the English had remained in France， the superior size and wealth of France would have hindered the development of a separate English national identity， while France was hindered so long as a foreign power occupied so much French territory.
V. The Black Death
The Black Death is the modern name given to the deadly epidemic disease spread by rat fleas across Europe in the 14th century. It swept through England in the summer of 1348. It reduced Englands population from four million to two million by the end of the 14th century.
The economic consequences of the Black Death were far-reaching. As a result of the plague， much land was left untended and there was a terrible shortage of labour. The surviving peasants had better bargaining power and were in a position to change their serfdom into paid labour. Some landlords， unable or unwilling to pay higher wages， tried to force peasants back into serfdom. In 1351 the government issued a Statute of Labourers which made it a crime for peasants to ask for more wages or for their employers to pay more than the rates laid down by the Justices of the Peace.
VI. The Peasant Uprising of 1381 and its significance
Armed villagers and townsmen of Kent and Essex， led by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw， moved on London in June， 1381. The king was forced to accept their demands. Most of the rebels dispersed and went home， while Tyler and other leaders stayed on for more rights. Tyler was killed at a meeting with the king.
The uprising was brutally suppressed， but it had far-reaching significance in English history. First， it directed against the rich clergy， lawyers and the landowners. Second， it dealt a telling blow to villeinage， and third， a new class of yeomen farmers emerged， paving the way to the development of capitalism.
1381年6月，在瓦特 泰勒和杰克 斯特劳领导下，凯特郡和埃塞克斯郡的农民和市民武装起来发动起义，并向伦敦进发。国王被迫接受了他们的要求。大多数起义农民解散回家，但泰勒和其他坚决的农民留下来要求得到更多的法律、宗教和政治权利。泰勒在又一次与国王的会见中被杀死。