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英语国家概况精讲系列(十四)

2007-01-11 16:48   【 】【我要纠错

  英语国家概况精讲系列(十四)

  VI. Twentieth Century

  二十世纪

  1. Britain and the First World War

  英国和第一次世界大战

  The Work War I was fought from 1914 to 1918 primarily between two European Power blocs: “the Central power”。 Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the “Allies”, Britain, France and Russia. During the war, the Britain lost much. Apart from the loss of manpower, there had been considerable disruption of the economy and society. Out of the war settlement came the establishment of the league of Nations.

  第一次世界大战是从1914年至1918年,战争主要在两大欧洲集团间进行:“同盟国”,包括德国和奥匈帝国,和“协约国”,包括英国、法国和俄罗斯。一战中英国损失惨重。除了劳动力损失,还有巨大的经济与社会瓦解。

  2. Britain Between the Two World Wars

  两次世界大战期间的英国

  The effects of the New York Stock Market Crash of 1929 soon spread throughout Europe and by 1931 Britain was entering the Great depression.

  1929年纽约股票交易所崩溃的影响迅速波及欧洲,到1931年英国进入经济大萧条。

  3. Britain and the Second World War

  英国与第二次世界大战

  As Adolf Hitler and Nazism showed off their aggressive momentum in Europe, Chamberlain, the Prime Minister, found his policy of appeasement of German aggression was no longer tenable, and was forced to declare war on Germany on September 3,1939.

  当阿道夫希特勒及纳粹主义显示他们对欧洲的侵略意图时,首相张伯伦发现他的绥靖政策已站不住脚,只得于1939年9月3日对德宣战。

  4. Postwar Britian

  战后的英国

  (1) One of the most far-reaching consequences of the War was that it hastened the end of Britain‘s empire.

  二战最为深远的结果之一是加速了大英帝国的瓦解。

  (2) In 1952 Princess Elizabeth was crowned Queen Elizabeth II. Many people through television saw the ceremony.

  1952年伊莉莎白公主加冕成为伊莉莎白女王二世。新发明的电视使许多人看到了加冕仪式的过程。

  (4) In January 1973, Britain became a full member of the European Economic Community which was still called the Common Market in 1973. Britain witnessed the first oil shock in 1973.

  1973年1月,英国终于成为欧洲经济共同体的正式成员国。1973年仍称为共同市场。1973年英国经历了第一次石油禁运。

  (5) Mrs Thatcher

  撒切尔主义

  Thatcherism referred to the policies put forward by Margaret Thatcher, the first woman prime minister in England in 1979. The main contents of her policies included the return to private ownership of state-owned industries, the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, the weakening of trade unions the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and an emphasis on law and order. To some extent her program was successful and she led one of the most remarkable periods in the British economy.

  1979年撒切尔夫人成为英国第一任女首相。她提出的政策被为“撒切尔主义”。其内容包括国有工业私有化,采用货币主义政策以控制通货膨胀,削弱工会的影响,加强市场因素在经济中的作用,强调法律和秩序。在一定程度上讲,她的计划是成功的。她领导英国经济度过了一段最繁华的时期之一。

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