I. Health and Social Services
1. Britain is regarded as a welfare state. This system is funded out of national insurance contributions and taxation. In Britain the term applies mainly to the National Health Service （NHS）， national insurance and social security.
2. The National Health Service provides for every resident， regardless of income， a full range of medical services. The service was established in the U.K. in 1948. Over 82 per cent of the cost of the health service in Great Britain id funded out of general taxation. The rest is met from： （1） the NHS element of National Insurance contributions； （2） charges towards the cost of certain items such as drugs prescribed by family doctors， and general dental treatment； （3） other receipts， including land sales and the proceeds of income generation schemes.
3. There are proportional charges for most types of HNS dental treatment， including examinations. Sight test are free to children. No one is liable to be charged by the National Health Service for treatment in an accident， emergency or for an infectious disease. Central government is directly responsible for the NHS， which is administered by a range of local health authorities and health boards throughout the U……
4. The family health services are those given to patients by doctors， dentists， opticians and pharmacists. In order to obtain the benefits of the NHS a person must normally be registered on the list of a general practitioner （GP， sometimes knows as a “family doctor”）。
5. A full range of hospital services is provided by district general hospital. There are also specialist hospital or units for children， people suffering from mental illness， those with learning disabilities， and elderly people， and for the treatment of specific diseases.
6. The National Health Service is the largest single employer of labour in the U.K. NHS has suffered from underfunding in recent decades， as a result of which many better-off people have been turning to private medical health care.
7. Personal social services in Britain assist elderly people， disabled people， people with learning disabilities or mental illness， children， and families facing special problems. These statutory service are provided by local government social services authorities.
II. social Security
1. The social security system is designed to secure a basic standard of living for people in financial need. Nearly a third of government expenditure is devoted to the social security programme which provides financial help for people who are elderly， sick， disabled， unemployed， widowed， bringing up children or on very low incomes.