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英语国家概况精讲系列(二十二)

2007-01-11 16:50   【 】【我要纠错
英语国家概况精讲系列(二十二)

  Chapter 9

  第九章

  Social Affairs

  英国社会

  I. Health and Social Services

  全国医疗保健计划

  1. Britain is regarded as a welfare state. This system is funded out of national insurance contributions and taxation. In Britain the term applies mainly to the National Health Service (NHS), national insurance and social security.

  英国被认为是福利制度的国家。此制度的所需资金来源于全国保险税和赋税。在英国,这主要是指国民保健制度,国民保险和社会保障制度。

  2. The National Health Service provides for every resident, regardless of income, a full range of medical services. The service was established in the U.K. in 1948. Over 82 per cent of the cost of the health service in Great Britain id funded out of general taxation. The rest is met from: (1) the NHS element of National Insurance contributions; (2) charges towards the cost of certain items such as drugs prescribed by family doctors, and general dental treatment; (3) other receipts, including land sales and the proceeds of income generation schemes.

  不管个人收入如何,国民保健制度为每个居民提供全面医疗服务。英国于1948年确立此制度。英国国民保健制度82%以下的费用来自普通税收,其他部分来自(1)国民保险金中的国民保险金部分;(2)象对家庭一生开的药单和普通牙科治疗所收的费用;(3)其他收入,包括出售土地和增收计划的收益。

  3. There are proportional charges for most types of HNS dental treatment, including examinations. Sight test are free to children. No one is liable to be charged by the National Health Service for treatment in an accident, emergency or for an infectious disease. Central government is directly responsible for the NHS, which is administered by a range of local health authorities and health boards throughout the U……

  国民保健制度中多数牙科治疗都要收取一定比例的费用,包括检查费。视力检查对儿童免费。国民保健制度对事故,急诊或传染病的治疗不收费,中央政府直接负责国民保健制度,由全国各地的保健机构和卫生委员会实施

  4. The family health services are those given to patients by doctors, dentists, opticians and pharmacists. In order to obtain the benefits of the NHS a person must normally be registered on the list of a general practitioner (GP, sometimes knows as a “family doctor”)。

  家庭保健服务由医生、牙医、眼科大夫和药剂师提供给病人。为获得国民保健制度的服务,人们必须在普通开业医生的名册上注册。

  5. A full range of hospital services is provided by district general hospital. There are also specialist hospital or units for children, people suffering from mental illness, those with learning disabilities, and elderly people, and for the treatment of specific diseases.

  地区普通医院提供全面的医院服务。也有为儿童,精神病人,有学习障碍者,老人和特殊病人开设的专门医院或病区。

  6. The National Health Service is the largest single employer of labour in the U.K. NHS has suffered from underfunding in recent decades, as a result of which many better-off people have been turning to private medical health care.

  国民保健制度是英国最大的用人机构。近几十年来,因为资金不足,许多比较富裕的人正逐渐转向私人的医疗保健机构。

  7. Personal social services in Britain assist elderly people, disabled people, people with learning disabilities or mental illness, children, and families facing special problems. These statutory service are provided by local government social services authorities.

  在英国,个人社会服务向老人,残疾人,有学习障碍者,精神病人,有特殊家庭困难的人等。地方政府社会服务委员会提供法定援助。

  II. social Security

  社会保险

  1. The social security system is designed to secure a basic standard of living for people in financial need. Nearly a third of government expenditure is devoted to the social security programme which provides financial help for people who are elderly, sick, disabled, unemployed, widowed, bringing up children or on very low incomes.

  社会保险制度设立的目的是保障经济困难的人们的基本生活水平,政府开支的近三分之一用于社会保险计划。此计划给老人,病人,残疾人,失业者,寡妇,抚育幼儿者或低收入者提供经济帮助。

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