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英语国家概况精讲系列(十)

2007-01-11 16:32   【 】【我要纠错

  英语国家概况精讲系列(十)

  第五章

  The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (1688-1990)

  大英帝国的兴衰

  I. Whigs and Tories

  辉格党人和托利党人

  These two party names originated with the Glorious Revolution (1688)。

  这两个政党名称皆起源于1688年的光荣革命。

  The Whig were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for Nonconformists. The Whig were to form a coalition with dissident Tories in the mid-19th century and become the Liberal Party.

  辉格党人是指那些反对绝对王权,支持新教徒宗教自由权利的人。辉格党人在19世纪中叶与持不同意见的托利党人组盟组成自由党。

  The Tories were those who supported hereditary monarchy and were reluctant to remove kings. The Tories were the forerunners of the Conservative Party.

  托利党人是指那些支持世袭王权、不愿去除国王的人。托利党是保守党的前身。

  I. Agricultural Changes in the Late 18th Century

  18世纪末的农业革命

  During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the “open-field” system ended when the Enclosure Act was passed. The movement lasted for centuries. Agricultural enclosure had good as well as bad results:

  18世纪末、19世纪初的农业革命期间,随着《圈地法》的颁布,传统的“开放田地”制结束。圈地运动持续了将近一个多世纪。农业圈地运动的利弊共存:

  (1) Farms became bigger and bigger units as the great bought up the small;

  由于大农场兼并了小农场,农场成为越来越在的生产单位;

  (2) More vegetables, more milk and more dairy produce were consumed, and diet became more varied;

  人们消费的蔬菜,牛奶及奶制品越来越多,饮食种类愈加丰富;

  (3) Enclosure was a disaster for the tenants evicted from their lands by the enclosures. These peasant farmers were forced to look for work in towns. Enclosure led to mass emigration, particularly to the New World;

  圈地对佃家而言是场灾难,他们被赶出土地,被迫到城镇找工作。圈地运动导致了大规模的移民,尤其是移民至新大陆。

  (4) A new class hostility was introduced into rural relationships.

  农村关系中产生了新的阶级对立。

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