The Rise and Fall of the British Empire （1688-1990）
I. Whigs and Tories
These two party names originated with the Glorious Revolution （1688）。
The Whig were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for Nonconformists. The Whig were to form a coalition with dissident Tories in the mid-19th century and become the Liberal Party.
The Tories were those who supported hereditary monarchy and were reluctant to remove kings. The Tories were the forerunners of the Conservative Party.
I. Agricultural Changes in the Late 18th Century
During the late 18th and early 19th centuries， the “open-field” system ended when the Enclosure Act was passed. The movement lasted for centuries. Agricultural enclosure had good as well as bad results：
（1） Farms became bigger and bigger units as the great bought up the small；
（2） More vegetables， more milk and more dairy produce were consumed， and diet became more varied；
（3） Enclosure was a disaster for the tenants evicted from their lands by the enclosures. These peasant farmers were forced to look for work in towns. Enclosure led to mass emigration， particularly to the New World；
（4） A new class hostility was introduced into rural relationships.