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英语国家概况精讲系列(七)

2007-01-11 16:27   【 】【我要纠错

  英语国家概况精讲系列(七)

  Chapter 4

  第四章

  Transition to the Modern Age (1455-1688)

  向现代英国的过渡

  I. Transition to the Modern Age (1455-1485)

  向现代英国的过渡(1455年-1485年)

  The Wars of Rose

  玫瑰战争

  The name Wars of the Roses was refer to the battles between the House of Lancaster, symbolized by the read rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white, from 1455 to 1485. Henry Tudor, descendant of Duke of Lancaster won victory at Bosworth Fireld in 1485 and put ht country under the rule of the Tudors. From these Wars, English feudalism received its death blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened.

  玫瑰战争是指,从1455年到1485年,以红玫瑰为象征的兰开斯特大家族和以白玫瑰为象征的约克家族之间战争的普遍接受的名称。1485年,兰开斯特家族的后代亨利都铎取得了博斯沃恩战役的胜利,建立了都铎王朝。这些战争使英国的封建主义受到致命打击,贵族阶层受到了削弱。

  II. The English Reformation

  英国的宗教改革

  Henry VIII was above all responsible for the religious reform of the church. There were three main causes: a desire for change and reform in the church had been growing for many years and now, encouraged by the success of Martin Luther, many people believed its time had come; the privilege and wealth of the clergy were resented; and Henry needed money.

  最重要的是,亨利八世负责进行教会的宗教改革。改革原因有三个主要方面:改革教会的渴望已有多年,现在又受马丁路德成功的鼓舞,许多人认为时机已到;人们痛恨教职人员的威望和财富;亨利需要钱。

  The reform began as a struggle for a divorce and ended in freedom from the Papacy. Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon but the Pope refused. Henry‘s reforms was to get rid of the English Church’s connection with the Pope, and to make an independent Church of England. He made this break with Rome gradually between 1529 and 1534. He dissolved all of England‘s monasteries and nunneries because they were more loyal to the Pope than to their English kings. The laws such as the Act of succession of 1534 and the Act of Supremacy of 1535 made his reform possible. He established the church of England as the national church of the country, and he made himself the supreme head of the church of England.

  改革以争取离婚而开始,以脱离教皇而告终。亨利八世欲与阿拉贡的凯瑟琳离婚,但是教皇拒绝了。亨利改革的目的是摆脱英国教会与教皇的联系,成立独立的英格兰教会。1529年至1534年间逐渐地与罗马脱离了关系。他解散了所有英国的修道院和修女院,因为后者对教皇比对英国国王更忠诚。1534年的《继位法》和1535年的《至尊法案》使改革具有了可行性。1535年他获“英格兰教会最高首脑”之称号。

  Henry VIII‘s reform stressed the power of the monarch and certainly strengthened Henry’s position; Parliament had never done such a long and important piece of work before, its importance grew as a result. His attack on the Pope‘s power encouraged many critics of abuses of the Catholic Church. England was moving away form Catholicism towards protestaintism.

  改革的三大影响:亨利的改革强调了君主权力,自然加强了亨利的地位;议会以往从未做过如此漫长而重要的工作,自然其重要性也有所加强;他对教皇权力的打击鼓舞许多人批评指责天主教会,并希望从天主教转向新教。

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